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What is good Working Instruction 作业指导书注意事项

六一儿童节来临,作为儿童节礼物,很多家长会买玩具拼图给小朋友们,据称是益智又亲子。如今国人有钱了,LEGO在华的销售额连续保持两位数增长。“乐高集团2016年最新财报指出,公司在中国地区的收入以强劲的两位数增幅增长。而之前的乐高2015年财报显示,中国地区的收入同比增长40%,约为全球增长率的两倍。”如今的乐高相比发展初期已对市场更加细分,衍生出多种主题的拼图产品,尺寸大小也是不拘泥于单一一种。但是如何能让消费者喜欢他,并在购买之后就立马能拼成一种结构以激发其成就感和进一步挑战的欲望?一份详细的组装指引就“功不可没”了。一份好的组装指引能做到让仅仅认识数字的3岁小朋友能将零散的几十块各种造型积木组装成一栋别致的小楼,栩栩如生的跑车,想必编写者也是煞费了苦心。

With June 1st Children's Day approaching, many parents will buy their children puzzles toys as gifts, which is regarded as educational and parental relationship promoting. Contemporarily with the development of China, LEGO’s sales maintain double-digit growth consecutively in China. LEGO Group's earnings report in 2016 has pointed out that the company's revenue in China increased rapidly by double-digit growth, while the previous report in 2015 showed that revenue grew 40% year in China market, about twice the global average growth rate. Besides, the market segments of LEGO has been more small compared to the initial development period, and the themes as well as sizes are broad. But how to make consumers like it and inspire the sense of accomplishment and desire of further challenge after they once buy and build one structure immediately? A detailed assembly guide is vital. A good assembly guide can allow a 3-year-old child who only learn numbers to assemble fragmented dozens of various building blocks into a unique small building or a vivid roadster. There is no doubt that the writers have tried their best.

这不禁让我想起了工厂内每天基本的作业需要用到的流水线作业指导书。每家企业在制定作业指导书时总是反复强调目标是确保动手能力和理解能力最差的人都能参照作业指导书一次性加工出合格的产品。但实际结果往往是不如人意,很多新员工要花费很长的时间来完全理解作业指导书的内容,有时作业指导书与实际也不一致,在中国待了10多年的美国咨询专家Renaud Anjoran是这么说的“难道作业员们在主管们演示给他们作业方法后仍然不会做吗? 是的,的确如此。我们发现很多质量问题的根本原因在于不完善的作业指引及不够细致的现场培训。因此,要获得最佳的效果,派一个工程师去观察作业流程,准备作业指导书(如果可行的话同作业员工一起),并培训他们如何使用”。早期我也是亲自编过作业指导书给员工使用的,后来做国外的项目转移到国内(本土化生产),也翻译并一步一步培训过国外使用的作业指导书给员工使用,其实很多时候也清楚在很多的工厂,作业指导书的要点并没有很好的解释给员工。

This reminds me of the assembly line work instruction used in everyday basic work in factory. Each company, when producing the work instruction, repeatedly stresses that the goal is to ensure that the staff with poorest operation and comprehension ability can process the acceptable products after referring to the work instruction. However, the actual results are often unsatisfactory since it takes many new employees long time to fully understand the contents of the work instructions. What’s more, sometimes operating instructions and the actual work are not consistent. US consultant Renaud Anjoran, who has stayed more than 10 years in China, says: "Won’t the operators know what to do after their leader has shown them? Well, not always. We have found poor work instructions and poor training on the shop floor to be the root cause of many quality issues. So, to get the best results, send an engineer to observe processes, prepare WIs (if possible, together with the workers), and train operators to apply them.” At earlier time, I had written the work instruction for workers, and later during project transformation to China (localization), I also translated the work instruction and trained local workers step by step. In fact, it is clear that at most time the key points of work instruction have not been well explained to workers in many factories.

拜访的工厂多了之后也练就了“火眼金睛”,一目了然知道工厂在作业指导书这个细小的环节上仅仅只是走走形式,还是落实到实处,正所谓魔鬼都在细节里。比如作业指导书的适用范围是广泛而包罗万象的还是具体到每款产品型号的?其框架结构,排版方式?最后的修订日期是2年之内的,还是从来就没发生过?有确认,有审批吗?有被人翻阅过吗?是横挂还是竖挂示于员工?详细程度如何?

If one person has visited too many factories, then he/she will have good intuition , knowing only at a glance whether the factory take the work instruction as a form or in real implementation.  Like the old saying, devils are in details. For example, are the work instruction applied for a wide product ranges or each product model specifically? Does It has a good structure and layout? Is it revised in the last 2 years, or never? Are there any confirmation of examination and approval? Has it ever been read by others? Is it hanged horizontally or vertically to present to the staff for easy reading? Are details included?

百度百科里对作业指导书的定义是这样的“作业指导书,是作业指导者对作业者进行标准作业的正确指导的基准。作业指导书基于零件能力表、作业组合单而制成。是随着作业的顺序,对符合每个生产线的生产数量的每个人的作业内容及安全、品质的要点进行明示。它记录了一个人作业的机器配置,记录了周期时间、作业顺序、标准持有量,此外,还记录了在什么地方用怎样的方法进行品质检查。如果作业者按照指导书进行作业,一定能确实、快速、安全地完成作业。”结合笔者的切身感受,至少有以下注意事项:

According to the definition of Baidu Encyclopedia,  “work instruction” is the standard for correct guidance of standard work procedures to work operators. Work instructions are based on the parts table and the work combination.  With the order of the work, it means to specify the key points of work, safety and quality related to each staff. It records the machine configuration of a person's work, the cycle time, the operations sequence, the standard stock level, and specific methods of quality inspection in different places.  If the operator works in accordance with the work instruction, he or she will be able to actually, quickly and safely complete the operation. ” With my personal experience, there are at least the following  notes:

1.作业指导书也是一种程序,只不过其针对的对象是具体的作业活动,而程序文件描述的对象是某项系统性的质量活动。

1. The working instruction is also a procedure, but its object is a specific activity, while the object of procedure describes systematic quality activities.

程序往往涉及到多部门,多岗位,多环节,而作业指导书更多的只是关注程序中的某个环节;程序强调过程的相互作用,职能以及所需的协调,作业指导书强调细节,方法,和标准,是对程序的一种补充。其次岗位工作标准不同于作业指导书,它是针对工作的责任、权利、范围、质量要求、程序、效果、检查方法、考核与奖惩办法等方面所制定的标准。它与作业指导书可能有相同之处,但其强调的内容有区别,并不是所有的作业指导书都需要规定职责、权限、考核与奖惩等内容;反过来作业指导书应有的条件和标准在工作标准中却不一定有。

Procedures are often involved in multi-functions, multi-positionss and multi-links,  but the work instructions are more concerned only with a part of the procedure; procedures emphasize the interaction of the process, functions and coordination required. Work instruction, which is a supplement to the procedure, highlights the details, methods and the standard. Secondly, the working standard of a job is different from the work instruction, it is the standard for the responsibility, rights, scope, quality requirements, procedures, effects, inspection methods, appraisal, reward and punishment methods and other aspects of work. It may have similarities with the work instructions, but the content of its emphasis is different. Not all of the instructions are required to specify the duties, authority, appraisal and rewards and punishments and other content; in turn the conditions and standards that should be included in work standard is not necessarily in work instruction.

2.不一定每一个工位,每一项工作都需要成文的作业指导书,但原则“没有作业指导书就不能保证质量一致性”的岗位务必要有。

2. Not necessarily every station or every job requires a written work instruction, but the principle is if " the consistency of quality can not be guaranteed without a work instruction”, then it is necessary.

经常有员工乃至工厂管理人员认为员工已经在某个岗位工作了相当厂的年限,已经对那个岗位了如指掌了,但往往换了一个员工他/她就不一定了解。所以我经常问一个问题,“你认为换一个新员工来做这个岗位他需要多久能熟练操作这个岗位?”而一份好的作业指导书正是能有效的缩短这个熟练期时间。最典型的例子是仓库,没有清晰的作业指引及5S,想想一个新人需要多久能记住一个混乱的仓库的库位号及库存数sad

Many staff or even the factory managers think that the employee has been working at a specific position for a long time and very familiar with the job, but often another employee he / she may not understand well. So I often ask a question, "How long do you think a new employee needs to be familiar with this job?" And a good work instruction is an effective way to shorten this period. The most typical example is the warehouse, without a clear work instruction and 5S, how long will it take for a new worker to remember chaotic warehouse location and inventory numbers?

3.一份好的作业指导书应该不止于指导员工做正确产品,而是需要嵌入精益生产的思想-如何高效的做对并使浪费最小化。

3. A good operation instruction not only directs the employee to produce the right product, but also contains the idea of lean production – how to produce efficiently and minimize waste.

很多的企业改作业指导书叫SOP (Standard Operation Procedure or Standard Operation Picture),说明清晰的图片是必不可少的。线路板厂的作业指导书基本都能满足图文并茂,但提到细节,却往往列不齐常见的焊锡不良示例,而且很多图片是能小就小,直到小到打印出来就基本看不清到底想表达什么了,其实作为已经相当成熟的行业,只需要从线路板的行业验收标准里截取出那些高清的图片来用于编制作业指导书就够了。其次作业指导书需要包含 标准工时,线平衡,工装夹具,人力需求,人机工程学,品质控制的要点及曾经的失效点,产线的设计,物料的需求规格及数量,物料的配送方式及产品的物流路线,以及基本的5S要求等等。

Many companies refer to the operating instructions as SOP (Standard Operation Procedure or Standard Operation Picture), which indicates that clear pictures are indispensable. Operation procedures of circuit board factories generally can meet the basic requirements of illustrations. However, when it comes to the details, they often fail to list all the bad examples of soldering, and many pictures are too small to be seen after being printed out. In fact, in the quite mature industry, it is enough to take the high definition pictures from the Acceptance Criteria of Circuit Board Industry for the preparation of operating procedures. Secondly, the work instructions need to include standard working time, line balance, fixture, manpower requirements, ergonomics, quality control points and the point of former failures, production line design, material specifications and quantity requirements, material distribution and Product logistics routes, as well as the basic 5S requirements and so on.

4.安全是所有作业活动的重中之重,但往往是最容易被忽略的地方。

4. Safety is the top priority of all operations, but it is often the easiest one to be overlooked.

经常开玩笑说在欧美的酒店里,电视机打开的第一个画面是教客人如遇火险如何逃生,而在国内的大多数酒店则是酒店的宣传片和广告。同样国外的很多作业指导书是将安全注意事项放在每个步骤的第一条,而见过国内相当多的是没有安全注意事项或者在最传统的以文字形式描述岗位作业规范的文件里,它通常是最后一条 – 或许我们的思维方式一直就是相反的吧。

It is usually joked that in European and in American hotels, the first scene for guests to see on the TV is how to escape in the case of fire, but in most domestic hotels there are the hotel's promotional videos and advertisements. Similarly, In many foreign work instruction, the safety precautions are the first of each step, but in home, safety precautions are not included in a considerable number of work instructions, or in the most traditional way, in normative documents written with words, and the safety precautions are usually in the end – perhaps our way of thinking has always been the opposite from the foreigner's.

5.作业指导书需要列明所引用的文件。

5. The documents for reference shall be specified in the work instruction.

在笔者看来,每份作业指导书均需要列明引用了什么产品标准,工程标准,无论是行业规范还是客户特定,就如同图纸需要显示所参照的通用公差一样。曾经遇到一个万象角度可调节床头灯的产品,被客人投诉万向软管开裂,结果作业指导书里并没有显示生产过程中需要测试多少次,如何测试,仔细研究,发现公司是有工程标准的,只不过没有人仔细阅读将标准的关键内容导入到作业内容而已。同样,螺丝锁紧扭力的设置,为什么需要这个扭力值,如何定义的,其实都是有规范的。

In my opinion, product standard and engineering standard for reference should be specified in each work instruction, whether it is industry specification or customer specificically, just as the general tolerance needs to be shown in the graph paper. I have encountered a case that an universal bedside lamp is complained by customer due to crack of universal tube. However, the information like how many times to be tested and how to test in the production process has not been included in the work instruction. After careful study, it is found that the company has its engineering standards, but no one carefully read and write it into the work content. Similarly, the setting of the screw locking torque, the meaning of the torque value and the reason for its use are regulated actually but often not included.

6.作业指导书是一个动态的文件,需要创造性的更新。

6. The work instruction is a dynamic file that requires creative updates.

作业指导书不是工程师在空调房纸上谈兵造出来的,而是需要同现场的作业员反复实际操作,观察,总结出来的。其次作为修订的基础,笔者是建议将一些关键的追溯性信息记载在上面的,便于今后的更新。比如要求临时的作业变动,实际的变动在哪几张订单上实施了呢?试产或稳定前客户曾经有投诉,投诉的是什么环节呢?这些都不妨记录在上面,或者作业指导书的背面,亦或增加一页备注页。

Work instructions are not based on talks by engineers in the air-conditioned rooms, but based on repeatedly practical operation, observation, and conclusion by operators. Secondly, as the basis for the revision, it is recommended to record some of the key traceability information to be used for update in the future, such as the requirements of temporary changes in the operation, the orders having actual changes and the steps that are complained by customers before trial production and stability. These information are recommended to be written on the either back side of work instruction or on the extra note page.

科技的发展大力推动了人类生活的便捷,也将人的智商弱化。X东,X宝上的卖家无所不用其极的拍摄录制各种产品的操作指引及细节,生怕客户一不小心使用错了产品。相比于LEGO玩具,宜家的家具也是以人性化据称的,不仅仅因为设计,而且组装指引也相当简单易懂,甚至指引中的产品图示比例都是与实物一致的,以便全球范围各个层次的消费者能快速操作,我时常想这应该是我们作业指导书的指导原则。

The development of technology has greatly promoted the convenience of human life on one hand, but causes reduction of intelligence on the other hand. Sellers of X Dong and X Bao try their best to film a series of operation steps and details of every product to customers, in order to prevent them from using the wrong products. Compared to LEGO toys, IKEA furniture is also known for its consideration for customers, because the design, and assembly guidelines are easy to understand. Even the size of the product illustrations in the guidelines is same as the real product, so that worldwide customers of different level can quickly operate. I believe that this should be the principle of the work instruction.

THANKS TO THE CONTRIBUTION OF TRANSLATION BY VOLUNTEER MS. DUMING HE (SYLVIA) FROM GUANGDONG UNIVERSITY OF FOREIGN STUDIES.

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Rating: 5

2 Comments

  1. SLM says:

    Continue the efforts

    Rating: 5
  2. […] 在作业指导书注意事项页中,笔者提到了一些常见的注意事项,但是在实践中,仍然会碰到一些现实的问题,永远没有完美的作业指导书。那比较基本的要求又是什么呢,如果能得到一致的认可等等。 […]

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