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月饼礼仪

2017年的中秋节和国庆节两大中国节日重叠,所以举国上下显得分外兴奋,纷纷提早计划行程,而火车票也早已经在8月底刚开始出售时就立刻售罄了。

与大家热烈期盼假期将至的氛围遥相呼应的则是火爆的月饼生产,销售,以及赠送,就像每年的双11,仅此一次,过时不候。正是因为机会难得,所以从上到下都十分重视,老板们琢磨着怎么能哄住员工的心,不能让员工觉得“孤苦伶仃”,把自己想象的太“黄世仁”或者“不入主流”(OUT),甚至有事业单位网友抱怨如今反腐单位不发月饼了,让TA有没有了组织的感觉。小一点的公司请员工吃饭,聚会,发月饼和购物卡作为福利,大一点的公司费尽心思把活动设计成主题,一些以年轻人为主的互联网大公司甚至相互比拼谁家的月饼和福利更有特色,谁家的主题更温馨。







对于所有的“乙方”而言,这个时候也是要对重要的“甲方”有所表示的,否则就显得失礼或者不通人情。就像每年的情人节一样,男生一定要向女生表示一下才显真情,尽管深情早已磨灭在油盐酱醋茶中,唯独不同的是“甲方”一定也是别人的“乙方”,而大多数“乙方”也一定是别人的“甲方”,但是男生女生不会如此。

月饼和鲜花都是“有所表示”的代表物,都可以是很简单,简装的那种,也可以是红中夹着绿,绿中夹着紫的那种,五仁的,绿豆,紫薯,红豆的等等各取一个拼装在一起,称为“七星伴月”。中国是个礼仪之邦,文明古国,用月饼来表达感情应该可以追溯到很久以前,但是想必以前的月饼绝对没有当今这么有创新,饱含深意。按卓弘毅先生的理解,礼仪=利益,读音相同,只是拼法不同,可见古人多么有心机,早就领悟其中奥秘了。

朋友家人间的礼尚往来我们就不提了,关于甲方乙方,其实无论从送礼人的角度,还是收礼人的角度,都不是一件易事,因为如何送以及如何收都是一门学问,且听我分享其中一二,如有遗漏请指正。

从送礼人的角度,送礼的目的无非三样,
• 博印象。关系还没有牢固建立,仅限于熟人,难得有这么好个时机可以以表心意,就像男生有心仪的女生,但是一直没找到合适的借口去表白,终于碰到情人节了,只要是见个面,吃个饭,聪明一点的女生就知道男生对她有好感了。对于乙方而言,意思意思,多么希望能在甲方有个靠背啊,毕竟城里有官好做事,树荫底下好乘凉。

• 续感情。关系已经建立了,相比熟人,已经算是朋友,但是需要更加稳固,时不时的问候一下,出来冒个泡,意思是说兄弟,我还是记得你的,我们还是哥们,有事记得罩着咱一点。

• 涨交情。希望关系能更进一步,由朋友变为知己,建立一种更加深厚的友谊和业务关系。往往这个时候“小意思”是“没有意思的”,所以赠送的礼物一定也是至少也是中等以上的,不能太差。

其实也并不是说不送的就不是熟人,朋友或知己,就像说不送的也有可能是甲方的生意占乙方比例比较大的,但是乙方有乙方的考虑或难处,比如说乙方老板比较耿直,或者乙方认为以实力取胜,也有可能是外资企业,不太兴这个礼仪,当然也不排除是上市企业,每一笔花销要层层审批,而这个大张旗鼓的花销可能会导致散户股东们口诛笔伐。而送的也不一定全是占乙方生意额最大的,也有可能是增长潜力最大的,但至少是重点客户。谁敢说老师喜欢那些成绩靠后又不努力的学生?即便TA们是明日之星,后起而薄发。

另外一个影响因素是攀比,英文说的比较委婉,用“Benchmarking (对比)”。同样供应一类产品的乙方,A 送了给甲方,B就不好不送,毕竟世上没有不透风的墙,A和B 终究是知道一些对方的动作的。B的业务相比以往明显有增长,就不好不送,所谓要“知恩图报”。

其次是连续性。往年送过了,今年要是不送,乙方担心甲方会有想法。就像笔者每年农历生日笔者自己都不太记得,但是生日那天远在老家的母亲一定会在那天打电话过来说“儿啊,今天是你生日哦,记得吃点好吃的阿”,自从离家上学,工作,年年如此,突然有一年,母亲没打电话,就一定担心是不是出了什么问题,是母亲年纪大了开始不记得了,还是母亲有什么急事连“母难日”都忙忘了。既然已经是连续的事情了,那不少乙方就干脆把这比费用列进了年度预算,省得每年到了这个时候大家为这个花销再做讨论,至于预算是多少,就看各个公司的财政情况了。

一旦决定要送,什么时候送就需要考虑了。微信群里第一个发红包的让人印象深刻,接下来的大家就没什么印象了。就笔者公司的观察,中秋节提前一个月就有人开始送了,之后会一路高潮,过完中秋,月饼就像资本家的牛奶,多到只有倒掉了。

甲方公司什么样的岗位该送,什么样的岗位不该送,怎么避免误会,该送的没送,不该送的送了,相信都很让乙方头疼,想必这也是很多乙方干脆不送的原因之一。公司越小,管事的人就少,而公司越大,财神爷就越多,你不能冷落了每个财神爷,当然这里面还夹杂着有些鬼神。正常来讲,往往一线的工作人员是肯定要送的,一方面大家同乙方的沟通频率肯定要多余甲方的高一阶的领导,或多或少大家有些私交,送的多少,大小和好坏都是一番心意,大家不会太在乎,另外一方面古话讲大鬼好见,小鬼难求,一不小心哪个环节把你的审批申请压两天,明明知道你出错但是不给你指正,一些小鞋还是很让乙方难穿的。其次才是一些小领导,他们不大不小,不最终审批一些业务,但是有不小的影响力,就像政府里领导身边的秘书,再加上未来的真正领导可很有可能就是他们,不仅要看眼前,而且还要眼光长远一点。

有些时候业务做的大了,甲方公司接触的人多了,好像把谁给冷落或者遗漏了都不好,这个时候还是全送吧。笔者有个乙方,早期合作的时候甲方代表办事处才不到10个人,所以那个时候好照顾,就像春节发新年利是,见者有份,但是15年间,甲方代表处扩张到100多人,干脆全送,谁也不得罪,因为这期间甲方公司的人员也会轮岗,山不转水转总会见着面,更何况乙方集团旗下也开了家糕点厂,就当成本价建交情。

要显得真诚,如果条件许可最好还是亲自派个人送给甲方,而不要寄快递。一来可以叙叙旧,二来如果有什么会议,也可以安排在这个时候,往往事情就更容易处理了,中国文化拿人手短,吃人嘴短嘛。

现在的快递业也真是发达,方方面面为客户着想。以前快递单手写,必须要写明是从哪寄给谁,这样在整个流通环节大家都知道是谁寄过来的,现在有些快递公司管理升级了,整个信息存储在数据库里,在快递单和标签上仅留收件人部分手机号,而寄发地就不显示在快递单上了。为了避免甲方的一些没有收到礼品的人员误会或者不悦,还是尽量不用署名快递,使用匿名快递保险一点。当然美中不足的是甲方收到了,但是不知道是谁寄的,细心一点的还会去查一下快递单号,粗心一点的就直接收下了,连谢都不知道谢谁。

同样为了避免误会,建议在寄快递时分开寄给收件人,而不要图省事拿一个大箱子将所有的礼物塞在其中,然后寄给甲方某个人让TA去分发,那不是寄礼物,而更像寄救灾物资。礼物大小是其次,心意和细节更重要,何况这当中可能甲方同样收到礼物的人员中有些是有隔阂的,大家各视对方为眼中钉,恨不得对方收到的是毒药。

其次送什么样档次的月饼估计也是个让人头疼的活,除了那些另有目的的乙方,总的来说会走以下路线。
• 新奇路线。早几年冰皮月饼刚推出的时候大家都觉得好奇,打破人们对月饼的常规想象,因此都特别希望能尝一尝。一些厂家继续推陈出新,开发出一些稀奇古怪的月饼,比如互联网上随便一搜“新奇月饼”,就有“黑皮月饼”,“香辣牛肉月饼”,“冰淇淋月饼”等等。

(鲍鱼月饼)
(韭菜月饼)

(香辣牛肉)

(象棋月饼)

(竹炭月饼)

  (小龙虾月饼)
(黑皮月饼)
• 传统路线。中规中矩的送法,通常是星级酒店月饼或者是某某老字号月饼,商业化时代,做月饼的越来越多了,快餐店真XX和咖啡馆都出月饼了。当然酒店一般也是不自己生产月饼的,而是外包给专业的月饼生产厂家来制作。而每年的中秋前后,总会上演一番老字号品牌的争夺战,比如荣X月饼。大家一番网络舌战,眼球经济赚完了,中秋也就过去了。

• 保守路线。有些管理者倾向于走保守路线,亲笔写上祝福的话,让人倍感温馨,

但是也有些“更胜一筹”,直接将祝福语,公司的信息和介绍印在包装盒上,年年如此,估计是批量印刷的库存,只是基本上这盒月饼是不会再流通了。

或许有些乙方早已意识到送月饼已经泛滥了,因此另辟新径,比如送精美的糕点,定制的茶叶,亦或从遥远的偏远山区特供的水果直邮。

送糕点的好处是通常甲方办公室人员都可以品尝到美味,又或者请甲方的一些人员吃饭拉拉家常叙叙旧,更像是老朋友。

乙方那边是人力物力,费心费財,甲方这边则是羡慕嫉妒,喜笑颜开。没有收到月饼的,羡慕收到月饼的,总有一些好事之人处处打听谁收到了什么好吃的月饼,或者什么贵重的月饼,又或者是从多远的地方寄过来的月饼。。。。。。收到月饼的则在盘算这盒月饼该价值几何,送给谁吃比较合适,收到太多的则在苦恼多出的月饼如何处置才为恰当。

通常甲方不与乙方直接打交道的部门大抵是收不到月饼的,有些时候看似掌权的部门反而一点权力都没有,比如笔者公司的财务部,严格按单支付货款,不允许有拖欠,如此乙方往往也就在月饼问题上把甲方财务部给忽略了。按收到月饼的多寡来看,不出意外的话,业务量大的团队一定收到的月饼多,再次证明了礼仪其实和利益很近,也激励了业务量小的团队要奋发图强。

其实收到月饼的同仁还是持平常心同大家分享一些为宜,尤其是那些没有收到月饼的“弱势群体”,有言“财聚人散,财散人聚”,更何况其实乙方的本意只是希望同甲方加强关系,而不是同甲方的某个人,只是公司给了职员这个机会和平台而已。

再其次我们应该感谢那些赠送月饼的乙方,毕竟TA们把甲方放在心上,对于收到月饼的伙伴尽量还是写封简短的信函回复寄件的乙方和乙方业务负责人,以表谢意并祝商祺。

礼尚往来,团圆中秋,这不是一个人的中秋,而是甲乙双方共同的中秋,如此才是一盒月饼的圆满之旅。

如何驱动团队改进How to Motivate the Team to Improve

在德里的时候同德国同事B被邀到当地企业主A家里做客,B是集团的质量负责人,直接向董事会成员汇报,我经常开玩笑说他在庞大的集团的组织架构图的第一页。几杯酒下肚大家由泛泛而谈转到公司运作。

When I was in Delhi, I, together with my German colleague B, were invited to visit the local entrepreneur A. B is the Head of Quality of group who reports directly to the board of directors. I always take a joke that he is on the first page of the organization chart for a giant group. After several cups of wines, we talk about the operation of companies.

作为A的大客户,而且业务量还呈现快速增长势头,A对我们的要求是言听计从,而且A也是那种开明的企业主,十分中意德国的设备质量和先进技术来保障产品质量。A谈到本来在我们之前来过,提出要求之后他已经很认真的有将这些要求安排下属落实。对于此次再次拜访在现场中指出的不足之处他表示抱歉,并明确表示在陪同我们参观现场的时候他向其质量负责人表明了态度,“这是最后一次机会,要是客户下次还不满意,在现场仍然能发现这么多不足,就请你另谋高就”。我听完心里一时很不是滋味,真替一个普通的质量打工者担忧前程,后悔没有在现场睁一只眼闭一只眼,戴戴高帽子完事。同时A也吐露心声,工厂太难管了,业务没有上涨,但是其质量经理总是抱怨说人手不够,需要增加人手,而A又觉得增加人手是需要看到业务上升的,否则就只是增加成本,对企业利润没有任何帮助。一席话让我不禁唏嘘,谁说国外的月亮比中国圆,其实哪里的苦都是一样的,中国的许多企业主同样面临这些困难。

Since we are the one of key clients of A and the volume of our business is increasing rapidly, A is very willing to meet our requirements.  Furthermore, A is such an open-minded entrepreneur that he is very interested in equipment quality as well as advanced technology of Germany to ensure the product quality. A mentioned that after we raised our requirements from last visit, he had already arranged for his team to carry out those requirements seriously. He apologized for any deficiencies we pointed out on the spot at this re-visit, and made it clear that he had showed his attitude to his Quality Manager clearly—this is the last chance. If our clients are not satisfied next time as they can find out numerous inadequacies on the spot, you had better find another job—when accompanying us to visit the scene. I indeed felt a little uncomfortable at that time, worrying about the job of a common quality employee and regretting that I had not ease the quality standard at that time. Meanwhile, A complained that it was difficult to monitor the factory, as the business didn’t increase. However, his quality manager was always complaining that more staffs should be acquired, yet A held that more staffs could be added only if the business increased—otherwise, it did nothing but increasing the cost. These words aroused my reflections: there is no difference in this aspect, since both Chinese and foreign entrepreneur face these same problems.

从访客的角度,笔者和B纯粹出于工作性质的考虑来指点工厂运营环节中的不足,以驱动工厂改进,从而保障良好质量,按时交付,以及控制成本。在B于9月份去之前,工厂已经有4-5月份的货还因为延期没能交上货,整整延期了快5个月,同样其他集团分公司的货一样的有不同程度的延期。以致德国负责采购的同事吐槽“按时交货真有那么困难吗,又不是登月球”,而B以开玩笑的口气对A说“让我从月球上下来帮你”。A将延误的原因归于订单的快速上升和4-5月份人工的短缺,并表示计划增加人手和机器来增加产能。而在现场,我们却发现没有规范的每日生产量的计划和达成统计,只有每日实际生产了多少的记录,这是在国内多么熟悉而常见的场景,走到哪算哪,如果今天走慢了,我明天就跑,今天生产不出来,晚上就加班,反正不用支付超额的加班费,所以生产节拍很不稳定。没有每日的生产计划,更没有每小时的计划产量,因此当日生产不达标或者超额的部分也就无从得知是什么原因的。问题分析最怕的就是一锅端,所有的问题混在一起,如果不抽丝剥茧,不知道原因何在是很难采取下一步的改进措施的。

From the visitor’s perspective, B and I pointed out the deficiencies in the factory operation process, only taking the nature of work into the consideration, to motivate the factory to improve the product so that  better quality can be ensured, on-time delivery is guaranteed and costs can be controlled. Before B went to the factory in September, the factory had not made the delivery for Germany from April to May due to delays, and the cargos had been postponed for about 5 months. Similarly, the cargos for other subsidiaries have also been delayed to varying degrees, which aroused complaints from my German purchasing colleagues,” Is it that difficult to make delivery on time? It is not going to the moon.” While B spoke in jest, “I’ll leave the Moon to help you.” A attributed the delay to the rapid increase of orders and lack of labor from April to May, and proposed that they would increase capacity by adding more staffs and machine. However, we failed to discover standard production plan or daily production output summary and analysis—only records for the daily actual output existed. It is such a familiar and common scene in China: no plan and just go where you are able to go. If I go slowly today, I will run tomorrow. If I fail to produce sufficient products, I will work overtime at night—after all, no excessive overtime pay will be given, so that the pace of production is not stable. Since there was no daily production plan, let alone scheduled production per hour, the reasons for substandard or excessive production remain unknown. When analyzing problems, mixing all the questions is the most terrible. If you cannot reel silk from cocoons or figure out the problems, it will be hard to take further steps for improvement.

从质量经理的角度,在客户去之前,她一直觉得自己很努力,也很有成绩,因为老板也很少指出工作的不足,对于发生的一些质量问题,连老板也觉得“我们生产量这么大,偶尔出现几个残次品也不可避免”。因此她也向A提出要增加人手并增加工资。客户提出的一些疑问或者一些改进空间,她会觉得“我们一直都是这么做的,也没有出现过品质问题,也没有客户投诉”。比如说工厂的一根自制的直径约8mm, 长约50mm的通止规棒(Go/No-Go Pin Guage),我们通过观察,发现好像有些不是特别直,但是现场又没有精确的设备,因此我们把它放到玻璃上来演示并转动它,发现它并不是以完全的直线轨迹来运动,而是呈现弧形。这其实是一个改善点,原因是那根通止规没有穿孔挂起来,所以容易掉地上,其二那根通止规的材料没有经过硬化处理,因此一旦掉地上就容易出现撞弯的情形。其实如果即便是知道它有一点点弯但是不是特别明显,也足够满足工厂的精度要求,但是“好”总是不能代表“优秀”,何况变弯是一个过程,员工很难识别到哪个临界点的时候它已经弯到不能再用了。在提出这点疑问后,A也同意将材料加硬处理再重新加工通止规。

From the persepctive of quality manager, she always considers her diligent and accomplished before the arrival of clients, as seldom had the boss pointed out her deficiencies in work. For the quality issues, even the boss felt that it is unavoidable that several defective goods appear as the production quantity is too large. Thus, she also required more staffs and expected wage increace. When some clients raised questions or proposed methods for improvement, she felt that ”we always do it in this way without quality problems or customer compliants”. For example, we found that a homemade Go/No-Go Pin Gauge (with diameter of 8mm and length of 50mm) of the factory is not so straight under our observation, yet no superior equipment is available for accurate measurement, therefore, we put it on the glass and roll it. We found that it moved in a curve rather than a straight track. This is actually a point for improvement, as that gauge was not punched to be able for hanging, so that it was likely to drop down onto floor. Secondly, the material for that gauge had not been hardened. Thus, once it fell down, it would bend easily. In fact, even if we know that it did bend, although not obviously, it satisfied the accuracy requirement of the factory. Nevertheless, “good” cannot always represent “excellent”.  Moreover, becoming bent is a process, so that it is difficult for staffs to recognize when it becomes too bent to use. When we proposed this concern, A also agreed that the gauge would be reprocessed after the materials were hardened.

对于工厂而言,产品十分单一,就是一个部件,多种尺寸和形状,工序包含(开料 – 钻孔 – 攻牙 – 焊接 – 抛光 – 清洗),员工每天生产这些产品,以经验丰富自居,所有的尺寸了然于心。对于A 而言,好像品质也没有什么大问题,因为产品单一,所以每种产品需要多少原材料很容易知道,而结合生产的数,也很容易计算出应该消耗的原料数量,再跟实际消耗的原料数进行比对就可以得知整个环节的损耗情况,而对于这个数他也是满意的。而同时也是因为产品简单,品质相对稳定,没有更高的挑战性,好像整个团队失去了改进的动力,因此A对我们的到访是又恨又爱,因为我们要指出其工厂管理的不足,并通告给采购方的其他团队,所以A从心底还是有些“恨”的,但是基于他可以借助我们指出的问题点来驱动其团队的改进,因此又有些“爱”。

For that factory, products are very simple, as they are no more than components with various sizes and shapes. The production processes include cutting, drilling, tapping, welding, polishing and washing. Staffs produce these products every day, regarding themselves as experienced that they keep in mind all the sizes. For A, quality seems acceptable and good. Because the products are simple, the amount of raw materials required for each product can be known easily. Combining it with the quantity of production, the amount of raw materials that should be consumed can be easily calculated. Then compare this number with the actual amount of consumed raw materials, the wear and tear situation of the whole process can be known. He appeared to be satisfied with this figure. Meanwhile, since the product is simple, and the quality is relatively stable without higher challenges, the whole team lost its motives for improvement—therefore, A felt really contradictory for our visit. On one hand, as we had to point out its deficiencies regarding the management of factory and notify other teams from procurement function, A “hated” our visit from his heart. On the other hand, as he could propel his team to improve based on the issues we pointed out, he also “favored” our visit.

整个企业好像在持续改善方面陷入一种“停滞不前”的状态,对于如何驱动团队改进,笔者把它归咎在了以下方面:

The whole enterprise remains stagnant in terms of continuous improvement. To propel the team to improve, I attribute the solutions to the following aspects:

  1. 上面有拉动力Pulling power ahead.

汽车要爬坡,前面有牵引力才跑得起来,而牛要往前走,给它前面放一堆草来吸引它。拉动力可以分为来自于客户的,来自于市场的,以及来自于老板的,或者说企业的。

Cars can climb only if there is traction ahead, while cows can move forward if there is a stack of hay ahead. Pulling powers can be stemmed from clients, markets and bosses, or enterprises.

  • 客户要求的落实Implementation of clients’ requirements.客户提出的所有需求都应该先用耳朵听进去,但是同时要经过大脑过滤,再到心里去。经过过滤的目的是因为有些客户提出的需求虽然是好的,但是不一定符合当前的发展状况和需要。而把客户的要求听到心里去,才有动力落实下去,否则就只是停留在表面上说“好好好”,实际上客户一走就忘光了。而如果企业主对客户的要求也是敷衍了事,置若罔闻,下面的人也大概会是得过且过。在同A的交谈中,在会议室里当着下属的面,他一定是细细聆听客户的讲话,理解,然后再重复解释给质量经理(因为质量经理的英文水平有限,也或者是笔者的口语表达不清晰),上层对客户的要求重视,实施的人就不敢马虎。尽管私底下他也会对我说“你觉得这样真的做的到吗?”“好像很难!”“偶尔一次疏漏应该可以接受吧?”。而真正对客户的要求重视的企业,一定是笔记做的比客户说的还多的,而不仅仅是点头认同,回头忘。 We should take in all the requirements of clients, but at the same time, we should filter the information by our head first –despite that some requirements mentioned by clients are good, these requirements might not cater for the recent development situation and need. One can be motivated to implement these requirements only if he listen to his clients by heart. Otherwise, he can only say ”OK” on the surface and forget everything when the clients leave. If the boss just appears to be perfunctory to clients’ requirements as if he didn’t listen it at all, his subordinates would also muddle along. When A chat with us in front of his subordinates in the meeting room, he must listen to his clients carefully, understand them, and explain to his quality manager repeatedly (his quality manager is not good at English, or my expression is not clear enough). If the management pay attention to clients’ requirements, the executor will not be so careless, although the management would complain to me privately, “Do you think we can do it?” “It seems to be difficult.” “An occasional omission could be acceptable”. Enterprises that really attach importance to clients’ requirements are those whose notes are more than clients’ words, instead of those who just nod his head to agree but forget it later.

 

  • 市场及新产品的拓展The expansion of market and new products.人总是会有惰性,长时间一直重复做一件事情就容易失去新鲜感以及挑战感。对市场和新产品保持敏感度,更容易让企业贴近发展前沿和技术革新,保持一种居安思危的心境。就如同大家都在谈电子商务,网上贸易的时候,企业还是重复走传统的老路就容易落伍。百丽的创始人及首席执行官盛百椒就表示百丽未能成功转型的其中一个原因就是对市场的变化没有做出很好的预判,65岁的他不会用电脑,也没有微信。对员工而言,新市场,新客户和新产品会带来新的技术要求和挑战,才有机会去变更和优化现有的系统和方法。笔者见过不少的企业常年没有新产品开发,也没有新客户开发,只要是暂时不用的设备坏了也没有人去修,车间慢慢脏了也没有人去打扫,日子久了就只会生产那几种产品,但是旧产品终究是会被市场淘汰的。其中一家最近笔者拜访的企业,员工对着笔者拿出的一份产品标准笑说“这个我们见过,很多年前我们老板从日本有带回过”,要知道那只是一份早已经转过国内标准的文件,也早已经不是什么高科技,高标准了。流水不腐,户枢不蠹,永远接受新鲜空气才不至于让人容易生病,而每天有阳光照射才不会那么容易发腐。 People are always lazy, as they will easily lose the sense of fresh and challenge when doing something repeatedly for a long time. To keep a sense of sensitivity to market and product makes it easy for enterprises to get closer to development frontiers and technology renovation and prepare for danger in times of safety. An enterprise will lag behind easily if it insists on traditional ways at times when others are talking about e-commerce and online trade. The founder and CEO of Belle Baijiao Sheng mentioned that one of the reasons that Belle failed to transform is that they weren’t able to make perfect prediction on the changes of market. Since he is 65 years old, neither can he use the computers nor does he have WeChat an account. For employees, the new technological requirements and challenges brought by new customers and new products enable change and optimization of existing systems and ways. I have seen lots of enterprises without development of either new products or new customers, with nobody fixing its broken machine that is put away temporarily and nobody cleaning the increasingly dirty workshop. Over time, it can only produce limited products; yet old products are bound to be eliminated. In one of the enterprises that I visited recently, the employee laughed at the product standard I presented, “We have seen this one. Several years ago our boss took it from Japan.” It is worth mentioning that this document has already been transferred into Chinese standard, and it is no longer a higher standard with high technology.  Running water is never stale, and a door-hinge is never worm-eaten. Exposed to fresh air forever, one can be prevented from sick, while exposed to sunshine, everything can be prevented from decay.

 

  • 老板的苛刻要求Strict requirements from boss. 严师出高徒,寒门出贵子,强将手下无弱兵,如果没有客户的严格要求,新市场和新产品的开发力度也不大,那就需要领袖卓越的领导才干以及发展下属的能力了。父母培养幼小的子女,其实每天同TA讲未来的残酷竞争TA是没有什么概念的,而如何将TA培养成才,考验的却是父母的能力。三字经里有云“养不教,父之过。教不严,师之惰”,说明只有高标准,严要求才能培养出好子女,好下属。A strict teacher produces outstanding students, and a humble family produces talented children. There are no weak soldiers from strong generals. Without strict requirements from customers and strong efforts for developing new markets and products, leaders’ prominent leadership and capability of developing subordinates are rendered necessary. Suppose that parents are cultivating their young children. If they tell their children how cruel the future competition is, the children will not understand as they do not have such concepts. However, how to cultivate their children tests the parents’ ability. There’s a saying from The Three Character Classic, “It is the father’s fault that the children aren’t cultivated, and it is the teacher’s fault that the teaching is not strict.” It highlights that excellent children and subordinates can be cultivated only under high standard and strict requirements.
  1. 内部有向心力Centripetal force from inside

在组织行为学里,组织是由团队构成的,而团队是由个体构成的。如果把企业内的每个个体比作一个分子的话,向心力是一种分子内部的强化与生长力,和分子之间的凝聚力的结合。良好的向心力意味着一颗圆珠放在玻璃面上不给它施力它也能滚动,而给它施加一点点力它能无休止的滚下去。

In organizational behavior theories, organizations are composed by teams, while teams are composed by individuals. If we compare every individual in enterprises to a single molecule, then centripetal force is a kind of combination between intensification and growing power inside a single molecule and cohesion among molecules. Good centripetal force indicates that a ball can roll on the glass surface without any forces, and it can roll eternally if exerted a little bit force.

  • 凝聚力Cohesion.凝聚力是指企业的文化创建,个体与个体之间,团队与团队之间良好的互动性,匹配性,协调性和兼容性。兼收才能并举,海阔才能相济,水被剖开马上又合上了。全员参与作为ISO9001质量管理里持续改善原则的其中一条,强调的就是基于凝聚力的团队合作,共赢。Cohesion indicates the establishment of culture within an enterprise, representing good interactivity, matchability, coordination and compatibility between individuals and individuals, and teams with teams. Integration of different things enables preservation of them, while wide seas enable confluence, as the water can join the flow immediately after separated.  As one of the principles for continuous improvement in ISO9001 quality management, involvement of all staffs highlights the team cooperation and win-win based on cohesion.

  • 自发力Self-discipline management. 自发力是一种自我有机发展的能力,通过自律和自省来控制自我膨胀。人有一个舒服圈,在这个圈子里久了就会觉得整个世界只有圈子这么大,如同井底之蛙,殊不知外面的世界很大。有个笑话说本科毕业生觉得自己无所不会,而研究生毕业生觉得自己会一点点,博士毕业生觉得自己很多东西都没学会。企业需要是一个学习型的组织才不会被知识的浪潮淘汰,而个体则需要对新知识,新技能保持一种好奇和饥渴才使动力永驻。Self-discipline is a kind of ability to develop oneself organically, controlling self-aggrandizement by self-discipline and self-reflection. Human has a comfortable zone, and if they stay in the zone for a long time, they will feel that the whole world is no larger than this zone, just like frogs in the bottom of a well, ignorant of the outside work. There is a joke that undergraduates feel that they know everything; postgraduates feel that they know a little; doctoral students feel that they know nearly nothing. Enterprises should be learning organizations so that they will not be obsoleted under the trend of knowledge. Meanwhile, individuals should always keep a sense of curiosity and hunger when facing new knowledge and skills so that the impetus can be maintained forever.

一万小时定律强调人重复一项技能达到足够的时间会成为专业人士,但是背后有一条逻辑是仅仅只是特定领域的专业人士。如果按照每天8小时,每年300个工作日计算,大概4年可以达到一万小时。也就是说一个人在一个固定的岗位干够3-5年,如果不保持持续的学习,TA的储备知识和技能会消耗殆尽,甚至会形成固化思维,对新事物和新变革产生抵触心理。这就是A对他的质量经理不满的地方 – 缺少学习的动力,靠吃老本来希望获取薪酬的增长。Ten thousand hours law stresses that if someone repeats his skills for enough time, he will become a professional. However, the logic beneath this law is that he can only become a professional in a specific limited field. If one works 8 hours per day, and works 300 days per year, the total working time can amount to ten thousand hours after 4 years. That is to say, if someone does a specific job for 3-5 years without consistent learning, his reserve of knowledge and skills will be entirely consumed. What’s more, it is likely for him to form a solidified thinking and resist new things and new revolutions. This is why A felt dissatisfied with his quality manager—his quality manager lacks motivation for study and hope to gain an increase in income by resting on his past experiences.

  1. 下面有推动力Pushing Power for the behind.

 推动力是一种驱动力,它来自于各方面的竞争和压力,然后化压力为动力。Pushing power is a kind of driving force that stemmed from competitions and stress from all aspects, and it can transform pressure into driving forces.

  • 供应商的促动Motivation from suppliers. 一个优秀的客户一定会带着供应商前进,而一个优秀的供应商也一定能激励客户前行。所以整个供应链的选择对采购方非常重要,如果供应链上各企业的管理水平不是很好,那么采购方一定会深受其害,因为采购方很容易陷入一种自满和自足,即便是希望通过改善来提高供应链的水平,但是改善也不是一朝一夕之事,在此期间组织很容易因为进度,效果不如人意而半途而废,丧失信心。在A的公司,直接物料供应商非常单一,就是钢材贸易商,而此类贸易商基本上都没有很特殊的管理模式,就是简单的低买高卖,因此基本上没有什么供应商能促动A的公司的提升。An excellent client must move forward with his suppliers together, while an excellent supplier must motivate his clients to forge ahead. Thus, the selection of the whole supply chain appears to be vital for buying organizations. If the enterprises on the supply chain are not so qualified in terms of management, then the purchasers must suffer from it, as the purchasers will fall into a sense of complacency and self-sufficiency. Even if they hope to raise the level of supply chains by improvement, the organization may give up half way and lose confidence because the progress or effect is not satisfying—after all, improvement cannot be accomplished within one day. In A’s company, the direct raw material suppliers are really simple—they are all steel merchants. Generally, this kind of merchants do not have any special management mode: just simple buy low and sell high. Therefore, there’s no suppliers on the whole can motivate A’s company to advance.

 

  • 同行间的竞争Competition among peers. 来自同行间的竞争能够让组织做到知己知彼,所以很多企业会通过各种形式去参展,加入协会,或者挖竞争对手的墙角来了解“敌情”,提升自己。但是同行间的竞争有它的局限性,很多的企业仅仅只是将竞争的范围局限在本土,甚至本地,时常听到的一句话是“我们当地的企业都是这么做的”,眼光过于狭窄,竞争局限在周边临近区域。我们把它归结于能比隔壁竞争对手超前一步,绝不超前两步,眼光只有两公里长。Competition among peers will make the organization know itself as well as the rivals . Therefore, many enterprises will participate in exhibitions, join in associations, or poach key employees of their competitors’ to understand their competitors as well as enhance themselves in various ways. However, the competition among peers is limited, as numerous enterprises limit their competition to mainland, even local. I can usually overhear that, “All of our local enterprise do this in this way.” Obviously, their horizon is so narrow that their competition is only limited to adjacent areas. We attribute it to a thinking that if we can take one step ahead our competitors, then we will never take two more steps. Their horizon, however, is only 2 miles long. 

 

  • 员工考核的压力Pressure from evaluation of employees’ performance.考核到底算是推动力还是拉动力,取决于如何设置这个激励机制。水没有烧开,怪材火加的不够,而材火说你水都没有开,我怎么再增加材火呢。考核大概分为 没有考核 – 传统考核 – 绩效管理 三个阶段。没有考核好理解,做的好不好全凭印象,整个周期都做的不好,但是客户来之前的那段时期做的特别好,或者临近考核期的时候表现特别积极,来赢得一个好印象。而且同时也容易产生晕轮效应,爱屋及乌,某方面做的好,容易造成错觉各方面都好,而同样某方面做的不好的,仿佛各方面都不好;传统的考核是给员工制定指标,胡萝卜加大棒政策,做的好有奖,做的不好受罚,这时就是推动力;绩效管理更关注员工绩效的发展以及能力同组织目前及未来发展需求的匹配度,而且同时化员工的被动管理为主动管理,每个人都是自己业务和命运的主宰,领导尽量少的干涉,仅仅在大方向上给予指导,这种状态下也是最容易激发员工自发力的时候,可以成为拉动力。Whether evaluation belongs to pushing forces or pulling forces depends on how to set up the incentive mechanism. The water doesn’t boil, the firewood is to blame as it is not enough, while the firewood says that it cannot add more firewood as the water doesn’t boil. Evaluation can be divided into three levels: no evaluations-traditional evaluations-performance management. No evaluation is easy to understand as the impression can judge whether you perform well or not. Sometimes the employee performs poorly in the whole cycle, but he/she performs well in the period before customers come, or they  appear to be active when the assessment period is about to come in order to win a positive impression. Meanwhile, the halo effect may appear, that is, love me and love my dog. If one does a good job on some specific aspects, then it is easy to arouse illusion that he performs well in every aspect.  Similarly, one appears to perform poorly in every aspect if he performs poorly in some aspects. Traditional evaluation aims to set targets for employees: carrots and sticks policy. If you do well, then you will be awarded; if you do not, however, you will be punished. At this time, evaluation seems to be the pushing force. Performance evaluation focuses more on the development of employees’ performance and the matching degree between ability and the needs for the current or future development of organizations.  Meanwhile, the passive management on employees could be transformed into the active one. Everyone can be the dominator of his or her own business and destiny, while the leaders interfere as less as possible and provide guidance only in terms of general orientation. Under this condition, it is the easiest to stimulate employee’s self-discipline ability, which can act as pulling force as well.

经过一番推杯换盏中推心置腹的讨论,A恍然意识到其公司在拉动力的创造,向心力的打造,以及推动力的建立上仍然还存在不少值得进一步去完善的地方。比如长期一直习惯于加工单一的产品,因此员工们觉得没有挑战性,但是有客户询一些特殊的新项目时,就觉得各方面的功底和准备情况不足,因此需要在技术和质量管理上进一步加大力度同国际要求和标准接轨。而在企业内部,没有归纳统计各工序的效率和良率来进行跟踪管理,因此在一些细节管理上缺少数据的支撑,主要凭印象,其次交期的延误也找不出根本原因何在。而员工则缺少充足的自觉性,认为老板让我做这个我就做这个,客户让我做这个我就做这个,不了解背后的原因和目的,基本上是“为别人而做”。同时因为缺少考核和绩效支撑,导致员工对绩效的自我感觉和评估同管理者的评估有较大偏差,从而造成沟通上的误会。After a pleasant and sincere discussion, A suddenly realized that his company still has a long way to go in terms of the creation of pulling power, forging of centripetal force and establishment of pushing power of his company. For example, as the factory got used to process single products, employees feel that it is not challenging. But if some clients inquire about some special new projects, they will feel that they lack foundations and are not well prepared for all aspects. Thus, technology and quality management should be enhanced to connect the international requirements and standards. Inside the enterprises, since the efficiency and yield of every process is not summarized and analyzed to conduct tracking management, some detailed management lacks support of statistics, and it mainly relies on impressions. Secondly, they fail to discover the root cause for the delayed delivery. In the meantime, employees lack sufficient discipline, keeping it in mind that they just do what their bosses and clients require to, ignorant of reasons and objectives behind—basically, they do things for others. Meanwhile, without the support of evaluation and performance, employees’ self-perception and assessment on performance may have relatively big deviation with that of managers’, giving rise to misunderstandings in communications.

分析清楚了现状,A信心满满,似有领悟的说仿佛未来更近了。After analyzing the current situation thoroughly, A was confident and he said with enlightenment that the future seems to become closer and closer.

 

Great Acknowledge given to Ms. Akiko Wang from Guangdong Universitiy of Foreign Studies for Translation.

印度工厂印象 The Impression of Indian Factories

继文章“一个商务访问者眼中的德里”之后,推出新篇“印度工厂印象”。近些年印度也在大力发展基础设施,而随着基础设施的建设,也带动了印度的工业发展,准确的说是制造业发展,甚至中国也有企业开始进驻印度设厂以开发本地市场,比如笔者就有认识的朋友服务于国内某知名手机制造商,被派往印度支援并指导生产本土化。加之传统的制造大国中国的人工成本一路上升,出口印度的关税仍然高居不下,而与此同时印度同许多周边国家加强了关税互惠政策,以增强自身的出口竞争力,印度的制造业面临很大的发展机遇。尽管近期印度2017年度第一季度的GDP为不尽人意的5.7%,广泛的国际国内评论把这归咎于总理莫迪的去年底的“废除大额面钞”和今年的“税率统一”新政,但哪一个发展和转型没有经历过阵痛期。长远来看,越是欠发达的地区越是发展机遇广阔,何况印度有和中国一样多的人口基础。

Here is a new article The Impression of Indian Factories after the previous Delhi in the Eyes of a Business Visitor. In recent years, India has been vigorously constructing infrastructures, which has also promoted the development of its industry, or manufacturing exactly. Even Chinese businesses start to set foot in India to explore the local market. A friend of mine, say, who works for a well-known cellphone manufacturer in China, has been sent to India to assist and guide production localization. In view of the fact that China, the traditional manufacturing country, sees a continuous increase in labor cost and puts high levies on export to India and that India has enhanced the tariff policy of mutual benefit with many peripheral countries to improve its export competitiveness, the Indian industry promises rosy opportunities for development. India reported a disappointing GDP growth rate of 5.7% for the first quarter of 2017, which broad national and international comments attributed to Premier Modi’s abolishing large-denomination bills last year and the new policy of flat tax rate this year, but it is normal that each entity that is developing and transforming goes through difficulty. In the long run, the less an area develops, the more opportunities it possesses for development; moreover, India has as large  population as China.

      因为工作的关系,笔者有机会在过去4年间拜访了印度7家建筑五金类产品的外销型制造型企业,分布在印度的不同城市。因为没有更加深入的了解,只作经历当中事实性的陈述和部分个人观点供参考。

In the past 4 years, I paid business visits to 7 export-oriented manufacturing enterprises of building hardware located in several cities in India. Due to a lack of further investigation, I will only make factual statement of my experience and provide personal thoughts for reference.

这些工厂的一些基本信息如下:

Here is the basic information of these factories:

 

所拜访的这些印度工厂的工作时间基本以09:00 – 17:30 为主,中间30分钟吃饭,外加上午15分钟的茶歇和下午15分钟的茶歇,所谓的茶歇就是打铃休息,有人说东南亚的一些工厂员工难以管理,“他们中间要拜神”,其实说的就是茶歇时间,既然是休息时间,当然员工可以自由利用。

These factories have a working time that mostly falls in between 9:00 and 17:30, with a 30-minute interval for meal and a 15-minute tea break both in the morning and in the afternoon. A tea break is when the workers have a rest. Some hold that southeast Asian workers are hard to manage, saying “they have to worship gods during work.” This is what takes place in the tea break, which, being a time for rest, can be definitely used by the workers freely.

中间的吃饭时间通常是13:30 到14:00,这是我第一次去拜访当地的分公司不习惯的地方,到了中午12:00,没有人过来安排我去就餐,还以为出了什么差错,结果到了13:00,才有负责接待的同事过来打招呼说半个小时后去饭堂就餐。当时分公司的办公室在GURGAON一个商业片区,食堂就在公司楼下,属于私人承包的那种,点餐就像大学里见到的饭堂一样。工厂一般是没有配食堂的,员工到带餐或者到外面自行解决,至少不需要配微波炉,食堂和微波炉都不属于设立工厂的基本要求。

Lunch usually begins at 13:30 and ends at 14:00, to which I was not accustomed the first time I visited a local branch. I supposed lunch at 12:00 but it was not until 30 minutes later that I was informed by a colleague of the lunch in another 30 minutes. The branch office was sited in a commercial district in Gurgaon. Downstairs is a privately contracted canteen where food is served in a university way. Factories are not equipped with canteens, or at least microwaves, so the workers bring their meal to work or eat outside.

通常工厂在正常的工作日内会有2个小时的加班,而这也是法律许可的,在此之外,每周6天的工作制也是法律许可的。也就是说正常的下班时间是19:30,何况加班是常见现象,如果工厂是在大城市比如德里,那么绝大部分的员工都会是外地移民,如果员工不是住在工业区附近,由于德里常年不分时段交通堵塞,那么1-2小时的车程是肯定需要的, 9点钟左右到家才能吃上晚饭,所以11:00 到 12:00 才能上床睡觉非常正常,这与我所理解的健康养生时间表相差太远了。甚至我认识的一个当地企业主每天晚上要看2-3部好莱坞电影到凌晨3-4点钟,常年如此,真是让我不可思议。在大城市的工厂,对于普通员工来讲,大部分还是属于外来移民,就像国内背井离乡到大城市打工一样。在偏远一点的城市,工人以本地人为主,而所有印度工厂都是不配宿舍的,针对这点,当地企业主纷纷对中国企业配有宿舍表示好奇。这些外地移民就只有到附近村里或者搭乘公共汽车到远一点的地方租房居住,我想要是企业能配有宿舍给员工,那将真是一大福利会吸引不少优质员工。以德里为例,维基上说有1700万,而百度上说有2600万,而后者更加接近我当地朋友的数据,而这个数据里面70%是外地移民,可见每个首都都是淘金之地,得利益的是当地居民。

Usually, the factory will have 2 hours of overtime within normal working days, which is also permitted by law, and the 6 workingday/week is also permitted by law. That is to say the normal closing time is 19:30, taking into consideration that overtime is common. If the factory is in a big city like Delhi, then most of the employees are immigrants. If employees do not live near the industrial zone, 1-2 hours’ drive is certainly needed before arrive at home at around 9 o’clock due to perennial traffic jams in Delhi. So go to bed at 11:00 to 12:00 seems very normal. This is, however, far from what I know as a healthy living schedule. Even a local business owner I know watches 2-3 Hollywood movies every night till 3-4 in the morning, year in and year out, which is really incredible to me. The general staff in factories in big cities are mostly immigrants, just like those in remote villages in China crowding into big cities looking for a job. workers in far flung cities are mainly local residents. Indian factories are not equipped with dorms, local entrepreneurs are surprised about Chinese companies with dormitories. Those immigrants have rent a living place in a neighboring village or somewhere farther. if a business can provide accommodation to employees, it will help to attract many high-quality employees. In Delhi, for example, WIKi mentioned a population of 17 million workers while Baidu mentioned 26 million, but the latter is more close to the figure by my local friends. and of the figure, 70% are immigrants. Obviously, each capital is a place for gold rush, the benefit of which go to the local residents.

同越南恰恰相反,印度的女性是较少工作的。在印度,仅有三分之一的女性有正式工作,而在越南国内私营企业中女性老板甚至高达25%。在笔者去过的那些印度工厂可以印证,其中一家工厂90%的男性,只有10%的女性。他们骨子里就是瞧不起女性的,但是嘴里当然不会这么说,毕竟现在这个世界,由于信息的畅通八达,知识和文明的快速传播,大家对于很多不合理的现象已经有进一步的认知,只是限于历史和文化的原因短时难以转变而已。

In contrast to Vietnam, few Indian women choose to work. In India only one third of women have a formal job whereas in Vietnam women account for 25% of private enterprise bosses. In one of the Indian factories I once visited, male workers take up 90% while female, 10%. They despise women, a truth they don’t speak out. After all, thanks to the fast spread of information, knowledge and civilization, people have updated their recognition of many unreasonable phenomena, but are not able to make a quick shift of mind due to historical and cultural factors.

以笔者所在的行业为例,在印度也有不少的同行制造业,但是大都处于单一部件的生产制造,较少有完整的复杂产品的生产到组装一条龙服务,当然也不排除一些本土和外资大企业资金雄厚,在当地设厂生产摩托车,汽车,卡车,空调等商品。而究其原因,笔者把它归之于以下:

Take the industry where I am as an example. There are many manufacturing businesses in India, most of which produce single parts with a few being able to cover both the production and assembly of a complicated product. Of course, there are still several rich enterprises locally owned or run by foreign capitalists, which produce motorcycles, automobiles, trucks, air conditioners and so on. As for the reasons, I conclude them as follows:

基础设施的匮乏。中国有句古话叫要致富,先修路,说明基础设施对于企业和地方发展的重要性,而印度的基础设施给笔者的印象是很多地方相当于中国90年代的水平,以德里为例,货物从德里运送到孟买需要1,100公里的陆上运输,这大概需要20多小时。在笔者2017年9月份拜访一家NOIDA工业区内的企业的几天当中,每天都会发生突然断电的现象达5次之多,幸好企业配有应急发电机组才不影响生产。而这大大制约了他们的发展,这也是他们近些年花大力气下功夫的地方。

Lack of infrastructure. An old Chinese saying—if you want to get rich, build the road first—manifests the importance of infrastructure in the development of enterprises and local economy. Yet in my opinion,the infrastructure in India, however, equals to that of China in 1990s. In Delhi as an example, land transportation of goods from Delhi to Mumbai follows an above-20-hour route of 1,100 kilometers. During the time when I visited a company in the NOIDA industrial zone in September, 2017, power blackout recurred as many as 5 times every day. So the enterprises had to be equipped with emergency generator sets to sustain production. This, however, has greatly hampered their development, and is where they have made great efforts to improve in recent years.

基础设施缺乏带来的弱国际竞争力。中国早些年的低成本快速发展已经将低端产品渗透到印度本地市场,在印度当前整体消费能力水平低下的基础上在印度你会发现非常多的商品都是中国造。中国批量低成本制造,这直接打压了印度本地企业在低端市场发力的信心。而在中高端市场,无论是人才或是技术,设备,供应链都是短板。在笔者所见的这些企业中,他们都沉淀了10-20年,供应链相对完整,但是也免不了很多工序都自己来做,因为外发实在不是明智之举,供应短缺,品质问题可能会让你无法向你的欧美客户按时交货。在印度,知名的世界500强投资设厂的实在不多,而在中国,截止2008年就有480家进驻中国投资设厂、建设研发机构、或是设立常驻机构,这也影响了各国投资者向印度投资和采购商品。

Weak international competitiveness resulted from the lack of infrastructure. The local Indian market has been penetrated by low-end products from China which developed in a low-cost yet fast way. In India where the overall consumption ability remains low, you will find many goods made in China. China’s mass low-cost manufacturing directly suppressed the confidence of the local Indian enterprises in playing in the low-end market. In terms of the high- and middle-end market, India is inadequate in no matter talent, technology, equipment or supply chain. For those enterprises which I saw having a relatively completed supply chain after 10 to 20 years’ development, they choose not to outsource many producton processes but do them on their own for fear that supply shortage or quality problems that may otherwise occur to prevent timely delivery of goods to European customers. In India, few of the world’s top 500 companies have made investment, but in China, 480 of them have already invested there for factories, R & D institutions, or representative offices. This has also imposed a negative effect on investment and purchasing in India from other countries.

(2016年德里的一个普通集市,大部分商品中国货A common fair in Delhi, 2016, most commodities made in China.)

印度的信仰文化。印度繁多的教派和宗教人士(据说印度有3亿神灵)),以及历史上2000多年的种姓制度大大限制了人们突破传统人生观的欲望和勇气,处在金字塔底端的大量的普通民众从内心就认为这辈子,乃至下辈子都与财富无缘,说的难听就是不求上进,容易满足,从而丧失了打破现有条条框框的胆识和勇气,而社会对此也不支持,因此贫富差距悬殊。但是每个社会拉动经济发展的都不是那些掌握社会绝大多数资源的少数派和国有企业,而是数量庞大的中小企业。

The Indian religious culture. Enormous sects (India is said to have 300 million gods) and a large religious population plus the caste system that has lasted for 2000 years has greatly limited the Indian people’s desire and courage to break through the traditional outlook on life: people at the bottom of the pyramid take it for granted that there is no way for them to be rich, be it in this turn of life or a next one. Therefore, they are easy to be satisfied and make no progress, losing the courage and insight to go off the existing dogmas,the breach of which is, actually not supported by the society.This partially accouts for the huge gap between reich and poor. But it is not the minority and state-owned enterprises which hold the vast majority of the society’s resources that drive the social economic development, but a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises.

精英教育。教育的规划政策有明显问题。政府在高等教育和基础教育投入的钱差不多,在教育政策上也是二元制一刀砍平。这种搞法,现在看来是有比较明显的问题在里面。

Elite education. The educational planning is obviously problematic. The government spends roughly the same amount of money on higher education and basic education, and adopts a binary system in the education policy. This sort of policy now prove troublesome.

比如,高等教育有其特殊性,在严格的印度教育选拔制度上,高等教育其实人数较少,精度要求较高,呈现精英化的特点。而这类高等教育的教育政策和经费把控上,是很明显需要特别对待的,不适合和基础教育一刀切。

For example, the higher education has its own particularity. Under the strict selection system in Indian education, people able to receive a higher education is actually small in number and higher in accuracy, which is characterized by elitism. The education policy and funding of this type of education are obviously required to be treated in a special way; it is not suitable to regard it as equal to the basic education.

但是这还不是真正的问题,真正的问题出现在基础教育上。 基层教育的人数更多的,范围也更广泛,并且也承担着消灭高文盲率以及提高国民教育水平的重任。印度基础教育分为两种,一种是公学,还有一种是私学,也就是常见的西式教育分法。公学承担更广泛的基础教育,虽然免费的初等义务教育已经在2001年被写入法律,但教育质量很差,不及格率很高。

But the true problem underlies the basic education. The basic education is oriented to a larger population, spread in a wider range, and takes the responsibility of reducing the illiteracy rate and improving the national educational level. The Indian basic education is divided into two kinds, one being the public school and the other the private — the common western education classification. The public school undertakes much more responsibilities of basic education. Although the compulsory education has been written into the law in 2001,education quality is poor, leaving a high failure rate.

印度政府还是做了一些努力,比如在2001年的Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan,或称为全体教育激励计划,很大的提高了入学率。 但是”入学率”虽然提高,但是毕业率变得更差。 同时在这种经费也一刀切情况下,老师的雇员数不够用,给老师的待遇不可能很高,也招不到很高素质的老师 私学虽然可以办到这一点,但是高昂的教育费用必然只能提供给高阶层人士,而且数目不多,涵盖不广,也承担不起”改善国民素质“的社会责任。

The Indian government has still made some efforts, such as the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in 2001, or the whole education incentive scheme, which has greatly increased enrolment.But the enrollment rate increases at the cost of decreasing graduation rate.Meanwhile, the expenditure being divided equally among the basic and higher education, teachers are not adequate and the treatment of teachers can not be high. As a result, high-qualitied teachers are deficient.Although the private school may make up the above shortage, it requires large amounts of fees so it can be only afforded by people of higher class. Besides, the number of the private schools are relatively small and the orientation is not wide, so it cannot take the social responsibility of “improving the national quality”

以上原因综合到一起的表现就是全印度的文盲率高达三分之一。2011年印度的识字率甚至赶不上1990年时的中国。2013年印度成年人曾在校受教育的平均年限与1985年的中国持平。 关于更多印度制造业不济的政治,文化,体制上的评论可以参考网络上的一些评论,比如“为什么印度在经济方面发展得不如中国好?”(来源:https://www.zhihu.com/question/20992832)

The above reasons add up to the fact that the illiterate rate is up to 33%. The literate rate of India in 2011 was not even as high as that of China in 1990.In 2013, the average years of an Indian adult for school education was equal to that of China in 1985.For more political, cultural and systematic comments on the poor Indian manufacturing, refer to those on the Internet, for example, “Why India falls behind China in economy development?” (Source: https://www.zhihu.com/question/20992832)

印度的效率实在不敢恭维。这不仅在工厂内部可以看到,而且在日常生活中也可以体会到。在工厂,员工只管按要求例行公事,尽管有获得ISO9001证书,但持续改进还有很大的空间,做错了就错了,再返工,不去思考如何去修正或者预防。笔者在印度的一家生产门合页的企业,良率比国内同行低了两位数。员工包括企业主还没有上升到考虑效率和生产节拍的层面上来,造成交货不稳定。在印度,大家一致的看法是讨论很多,实施很少,估计和多党派政府执政有关系。你会看到很多在马路上聊天的人,不知道在聊什么。而在酒店,区区一个大堂,我就发现4个人无所事事的样子,当然这里面包含有个拿着苍蝇拍忙于寻找并拍打苍蝇。(这不包括负责柜台内负责办理入住和离店的人员)。

There is nothing for India to boost about its efficiency, neither in factory production nor in daily life.In factories,the workers are regulated to do a routine job, with no need for thought or consideration for improvement. The quality yield of an Indian company which produces door hinges is lower than that of the domestic peers in double digits. Employees and even business owners don’t take production efficiency and tempo into consideration, resulting in erratic delivery. A common impression of India is that words are more said than done, which is supposed to have something to do with the multi-party government. You can see many people chatting on the street, having no idea what they are actually talking about. Just in one hotel lobby, I found 4 people hanging around doing nothing, including one busy looking for and slapping at flies. (This does not include those responsible for hotel check-in and check-out.)

印度的产品也有出口欧美,但是笔者的印象是限于一些手工业产品和少数中高端制造商品。本地市场仍然 有广泛的需求,但是以中低端为主,就连本地最大的汽车制造企业TATA也是主推价格在10万人民币以内的私人轿车。笔者所在的行业向印度采购的商品基本上没有测试条件来验证产品的可靠性,而生产的数量上比国内企业低好几个级别,也限制了规模化效应和质量控制上的投入。对于供应链的管控基本上只在汽车制造业里才有实施,因此供应的原材料没有保障。以笔者熟悉的一家五金单品加工企业为例,采购不锈钢棒,尺寸可以测量,材料成分每批都送外检验,但是硬度就不稳定,加工出来的产品总是有毛刺或者尺寸不稳定。而检验硬度的设备没有配备,即便是配备,其实也改变不了现状,钢材厂基本上都是大企业,作为小客户只有使用的份,没有改变的权。作为最基本的检验工具卡尺,笔者发现的确都有校准,但是就目测质量就明显不如国内的量具大厂生产的。

Indian goods are also exported to Europe and America. But as far as I can remember, these goods contain only handicraft products and a few high-end manufacturing ones. The local market is in a large demand for mid- and low-end products. For example, even TATA,the largest car maker of the country, mainly sells cars that cost within 100,000 RMB. In my industry in India, there is no testing conditions to verify the reliability of the products purchased there; production quantity is far more smaller than that of China, which also hampers the scale of economy  and quality control. Due to the lack of supply chain management which is implemented only in car industry, the material supply is unsecured. Take a  hardware item processing enterprise with which I am familiar as an example. In processing stainless steel rods, the factory measures the size and sends each batch of materials to external inspection, but the hardness won’t be stable, and the products are always deburred or unstable in size. And there is no device of hardness test. Even if it is in position, it will change nothing because steel factories are usually large enterprises, a small customers can only buy from it, with no rights to it. As for the most basic testing tool caliper, I found that there is indeed calibration, but a simple visual inspection can show obviously that the quality of it not as good as that produced in China.

笔者观察发现印度的企业有20%的设备采购是欧美的,20%钟意台湾的,30% – 40% 是中国产,还有20% – 30% 是本地设备,而往往那些设备都陈旧缺少保养。印度的企业主大都受过良好的教育,还是具有一定视野的,自动化设备也在一些企业开始实施,但是毕竟范围并不是那么广泛。欧美设备精度高,但是价格昂贵,而台湾的设备其实在全球市场都颇受欢迎,因为性价比适中,中国产设备近些年抓住出口的春风发展的也不错,而印度本地的设备仅供一些普通的加工。当地企业主十分满意中国产数控机床CNC,笔者细看发现是大连机床厂生产,并不是说大连机床厂的质量不好,而是国内更加喜欢欧美产的设备。

I found that in India, 20% companies procure equipment from Europe and the United States, 20% from Taiwan, 30%-40% from mainland China and 20%-30% from the local market.their equipment are often lack of maintenance and old. Most Indian business owners are well-educated and have a broad horizon, and have begun to carry out equipment automation—on a primarily small scale. European and American equipment boosts of high preciseness, but are expensive. Taiwan’s devices are actually popular around the world because of its high performance-price ratio. Chinese equipment also develops well in recent years thanks to the encouraging export policies. Yet Indian equipment is only available for some common processings. The local business owners are quite fond of the CNC machine tools made in China, most of which I find are from Dalian Machine Tool Group. In China, however, European and American devices are preferred by the domestic enterprises.

印度法定的工资情况和笔者通过查阅薪水薄所了解的实际工资水平如下。对于白领阶层,笔者在2013年拜访一家企业主时,他指着路边 ADOBE的办公楼自豪的告诉我他儿子在那里工作,月薪水在1万人民币,并表示在同龄白领当中属于佼佼者了,由此可见印度的平均工资水平:

The legal wage level in India and the actual wage level as I know through the payroll sheet are as follows. For the white-collar workers, I visited a business owner in 2013, who pointed to the roadside ADOBE office building and proudly told me his son worked there with a monthly salary in 10 thousand yuan, and that such a salary ranked top among white-collar workers of the same age. The average wage level in India:

 

1: 取工厂五金开料工人为例 Hardware cutting workers as an example

2:普通操作工Common operator

3:杂工,以女性为主Handyman, women mainly

根据印度1948年工厂法案,如果每天工人工作超过9小时,或者任何一周超过48小时,企业主就需要针对加班部分向员工支付相当于正常工作时间薪酬水平2倍的工资。 这不分正常工作日内的加班或者周末,亦或者节假日通用。但是实际情况中现象往往同国内一样,较少有企业能满足,可见资本家在哪都是一样的。

According to the Indian Factory Act in 1948, if the workers work more than 9 hours a day, or more than 48 hours a week, business owners need to pay for the extra working hours twice the normal salary to the workers, with no exception of working days, weekends and holidays. But the real situation is that few companies can meet this regulation, the same with China. It is apparent that capitalists are the same everywhere.

2017年笔者再同其他的当地企业主私底下聊谈得知15,000 INR 每月应该是德里NOIDA工业区的平均水平,这个金额以当前的汇率计算为1,533 人民币,这也是包含加班费在内的员工月工资。如果不考虑工作效率,相比目前珠三角2,500 – 3,500 人民币每月的普工工资水平还是蛮有竞争力的。

In 2017, I learned in a casual chat with local business owners that the average salary in NOIDA industrial area, Delhi is about 15,000 INR per month, which equals to 1,533 RMB at the current exchange rate. Pay for extra working is also included in. Leaving work efficiency apart, such a salary is competitive in comparison with the current level of 2,500 to 3,500 RMB per month in pearl river delta.

印度作为一个人均GDP为1,678美元(2016年数据)的发展中国家,尽管同中国政府一样制定了诸多的法律法规,但在实际的落实当中企业在合规发展方面仍然有很大的落差。同中国同行的企业一样在工厂内部有诸多问题,但是一些现状笔者真的只在国内的内地一些偏远城市内的企业里见过。

Although India, a developing country with a GDP per capita of $1678 (2016), established a number of laws and regulations as China do, there is a long way to go for these enterprises to play within regulations. Just like its Chinese peers, Indian factories have many problems, but some of which I have only seen in some companies in remote cities in China.

(2016年Rajasthan某企业的铜铸造工序Copper casting in a enterprise in Rajasthan, 2016)

印度政府为了支持企业的发展总是睁一只眼,闭一只眼,或者有选择性的睁眼闭眼,而大部分企业在合规方面的发展并不是来自于自身的主动考虑, 而是来自于客户和市场的需求以及竞争的压力。

In order to encourage the development of local enterprises, the government turns a blind eye to their behaviors against regulations. Most enterprises choose to conform to the regulations not because of initiative consideration of the development of itself, but is force by the customer and market demand and competition pressure.

印度和中国一样有新年,也一样有工人短缺季,但是他们的新年排灯节(DIWALI)在我们公历10月份,而那个时候也并不是工人的短缺时期,因为假期就像我们的五一,或者十一,只休息3天左右。反而大部分企业的工人短缺是在每年的四到五月份,因为那个时候许多的员工需要回老家去收割庄稼,同时那个时期也是印度年轻人比较中意的结婚办喜事的日子。笔者所在的企业前期就曾因此而在交期上饱受折磨,建议如果读者有合作伙伴在印度,需要提前做好备货的准备。

Just like China, India has a New Year and a shortage season of workers.Since their day of New Year—DIWALI, is in October, with only 3 days off, the worker shortage season doesn’t fall in between. The shortage season takes place in April or May every year when many workers ask for days-off to go back home harvesting crops. Meanwhile, it is also a period of time preferred by Indian young people for wedding. My company was once tortured during the period of delivery. So it is a suggestion that if you have any trade partners in India, the goods for delivery should be prepared beforehand.

 

Special acknowledge goes to Ms. Wang Qian (Claire) from Guangdong University of Foreign Studies for translation.

一个商务访问者眼中的德里 第三部分

德里印象第三部分:德里吃饭的地方网上各有各的评论,但我的经验是相比当地收入而言,还是偏贵的。早餐一般是在酒店解决的,口味因人而异,我自己不能适应本地的传统饮食,以西式加一些水果就搞定了。

4年多前我在酒店附近的PIZZA HUT 吃过第一顿到德里之后的饭,PIZZA平民套餐,大概50多人民币,那时晚餐铁板烧一个人大概100人民币左右,属于我们的商场附近的那种地段。水就一定要喝瓶装的,我试过那种非瓶装的,喝完肚子马上就起反应了,我同行的同事居然敢在街头买黄瓜吃,拿那个不知洗了多少遍黄瓜的桶装水再冲一下就送到嘴里,而且没出事,精钢不坏之身让我佩服不已。

(2013年,一个在GURGAON的商场附近)

(2013年,一个铁板烧套餐,大约100人民币,在那个餐厅,第一次打破我的印象其实也并不是所有的印度人都用手抓饭吃的)

去年和今年再过去,留意了一下酒店的价格,以我在的CROWNE PLAZA 为例,啤酒在80块人民币左右一小瓶,开胃菜大部分150到200块人民币不等,主食200块人民币往上,而且很奇怪开胃菜也是各种肉,我都分不出和主食有什么不一样,所以最好不要点什么开胃菜,否则就是浪费。去年在Connaught Place附近的一个日本餐厅三个人吃过一次便餐,真正的和国内的便餐一样,也花了250块人民币左右,还是蛮贵的,小费就看个人了。但是这个价格水平和德里领事馆集中区域附近的高档酒店比较起来就小巫见大巫了。

(你没看错,2千多一份主食的就是印度卢比,右边是ITC HOTEL 获得的2011-2012年度亚洲前20佳饭店的殊荣)

在朋友家里吃饭,准备的实在太丰盛了,也见证了一个上流社会家庭的生活方式。第一次刚好是去年的印度新年,Diwali Festival(排灯节,也叫光明节,是印度的重要节日,相当于我们的除夕)。家里特别备了羊肉,好像是削成片卷起来焖熟的那种,仆人端上来,送到嘴里就化了,据说准备了一天一夜。但是从我们9点钟到达开始晚餐到离开时大概晚上12点钟,一些身着盛装的亲戚朋友才陆陆续续过来庆祝聚会,也就是说他们真正的庆祝才刚刚开始。我们穿过楼梯下来,整条道上挂满了鲜花串,走道的两边是间隔1个台阶一盏的烛灯,房子外布满了LED灯带,漂亮极了。第二次是上周,在朋友的吧台上边聊边喝边吃完开胃菜到晚上11点我们就已经饱了,结果朋友说我们正式开始晚餐吧,一家人引我们到客厅,大部分饭菜已经早被摆在桌子上的银色的下面带温火的盘子上了,仆人们又继续从隔壁的10多平方的厨房里端出来一些当地的特色饼和像乒乓球一样大小的甜品,口味和ITC HOTEL 一样,可惜我们也实在是饱了,因为开胃菜也是焖的羊肉,鸡肉。

印度的酒店还是比较贵的,尤其是税费更贵。因为是商务出差,安全第一重要,所以每次选相对好一点的酒店。据当地朋友讲德里有40多家5星级酒店,,其中20多家国外的,其余是印度本地投资商的。国外的无非是那些国际连锁酒店,样式和服务都差不多。本地投资的很多以悠久历史为卖点,但个人不习惯。像以盛产海娜的Rajasthan(拉贾斯坦邦)为例,我住过一个建立在像是沙漠一样荒凉的山村旁的山上的据说有550多年历史的古老酒店,因为价格超预算,后面供应商告诉我终于预定好了,还以为他们拿到一个好的折扣,后面才发现是一个古代郡主宫殿里的杂物房改造的,房子也就10平方,在房子的最底层,床是那种0.8米 X 2.0米的那种木头架子,连个靠背也没有,传单被套的花色让我想起我外婆,房间有电话号码索引,可是没有电话,唯一的电子产品估计就是我服务过的公司的保险箱了,房价还要1千人民币左右,可见历史就是值钱。

(550年历史的FORT –城堡改造的酒店)

(中间有阶梯的地方是过去郡主的表演观赏台,还有些房间在扩建,越往上房价越贵)

(这就是我住过的郡主家的500多年前的杂物房)

(我的上个东家的产品,在这个偏远的地方能见到,倍感亲切)

(门锁是中国产的,厂家是“二环”,但是我只听说过“三环”)

德里的旅游景点我去过不多,但是将去过的地方和那些旅游网上下载下来的美轮美奂的图片做对比的话,我只能说摄影技巧也起很大的作用。后来仔细一琢磨,要是图片都拍的不美,谁还会来旅游,如此那些旅游网也就少有客源了。来德里旅游,想必大家希望来体验一个有历史和异域风情的文化国家,而不是当地那些在随便一个中国2-3线城市中心就能找到的跳床和火箭蹦极。观察发现其实国人大多忙于挣钱,对历史不感兴趣,或者说远没有欧美人对印度的热情,尤其是年长一些的,因为来印度旅游的外国人相当一部分就是中年人甚至老年人,他们更加好奇这么一个“不断为异民族片服的国家”如何将来自那些自从公元1500年前入侵他们家园的雅利安人,塞种人,鲜卑人,贵霜人,土耳其人,匈奴人,蒙古人的文化融合在一起的。每次问不同酒店附近有什么景点可以去参观,得到的回答都是一样的 – 寺庙。的确,他们的寺庙太多了,各种教派的寺庙形式各样,而里面也是我见过整个德里同议会大厦前的广场一样干净的地方了。他们也相当忠诚,我当地朋友同我一起乘驾去其他地方,我就见到他见一个寺庙就双掌合一朝它礼拜,我心里纳闷他怎么就知道那是他的神,但没好意思开这个玩笑。另一个朋友和我一起,他向我解释请我理解,说他必须要驾车绕一下路去拜一下他的神,因为他有好几天没去过了,让我不禁惭愧打电话问候老母的频率。

我对印度历史没有研究,不清楚每一栋陈旧甚至破损的建筑,塔楼背后的故事,但是惊奇于很少维护的建筑物加上一个圈,就可以采取差异化政策,对外国访客动不动收取50多人民币的参观费,而国内居民3块钱人民币,而且有些景点录像还需要按摄像机的数量额外再收费。

(2016年,德里红堡收费处,费用从30到500卢比不等)

(2013年德里附近的一个塔楼景点,我也忘了名字,只剩一座塔和破损的墙垣)

2016年去德里的时候碰到DIWALI, 全国上下一片喜气洋洋的景象,到处的交通堵塞,瘫痪,满城的蜡烛,灯光,当然最可怕的不是这些,而是让人不能出门的空气污染,以至我掀起外套的一角来捂鼻,而我同事则抱怨出门10分钟耳朵里全是灰尘。那时的空气污染指数德里是全球排第一的,如果你希望多活几年,还是不要在那个时候来。德里的森林覆盖面积约20%(2008年网络数据),而北京2017年约42%(网络数据)。因为对工业污染,汽车尾气排放缺少有效的控制,加之整个城市和国家强调自然和谐,所有的生物自由平等生活,所有的街道没有足够的清扫,随地大小便是常见现象,平时的空气质量也是全球最差之一,这是我很多欧美同事不太喜欢去那里出差的其中一个原因。

(2013年,德里普通街头的水果摊以及满地的未清理的树叶, 2017年去还是如此,想这是为什么德里呼唤 “Create a Clean Delhi – 创造一个干净的德里”的原因了)

据朋友讲自从2008年的发生在孟买的恐怖袭击造成195人死亡,295人受伤之后印度上下就加强了安检控制,但是在网上找不到准确的时间信息。2013年至今过去德里都能看到所有的酒店,地铁,商场等人员密集场所有安检,但是限于基础设施个人感觉很多都是走走形式,尤其是我带的水直接放在包里通过X射线连包一起检查更让我怀疑检查的的可靠性,因为国内一线城市的地铁都是需要将液体额外拿出来用特殊装置检查的,而机场更是压根就不许带水,直接切断了这个风险源。亲眼看着安检人员晚上在酒店门口拿个像漫画里的反光镜检查车底,漆黑的夜晚你觉得能检查出来吗,还是说仅仅只是为了检查有没有导弹发射器?向朋友打听,他也觉得只是走走过场,从来没听说过有人检出过炸弹,不过也没有再报道过恐怖袭击了,心想要是再出恐怖袭击该如何解释,就像检验过的产品还有品质问题一样难堪。不过因为费用还是由各个商家出,我只是觉得除了吓唬之外可以解决不少就业。

(左边的漫画写着:放松,我们只检查前盖和尾箱;右边是2013年在阿哥拉附近酒店的安检)

除了安检,其实很多人更关心的是女生能不能独自访问印度,我个人的建议是大白天公共场合安全性还好,不要去一些较少人去的地方,晚上即便是有人陪同都还是不要出门了,何况晚上实在没有什么好看的。

这基本上就是我眼中的印度和德里印象了,你们觉得中印之间的这场仗还有的打吗?

第一篇完,请看第二篇:德里工厂走访录

一个商务访问者眼中的德里 第二部分

德里印象第二部分:从机场出来深夜离开,找不到约好的司机,费了一通周折才发现机场出口有两扇门,我只在里面的出口等,那里的司机是额外花了钱才进去的,外面的出口是免费的,而我的司机在外面等我。本来公司跟出租车公司强调过需要派个干净点的车,结果到了才发现是一辆丰田的7座车,型号没留意,但是看起来像国内的用于拉货的一样,拉开后备箱放行李,还能发现乱七八糟的工具堆在里面。德里机场也学伦敦机场,口号是Make a Silent Airport, 猜真正的用意是省钱吧,因为基础建设实在有限,机场外灯光昏暗,与机场一路之隔就是杂草丛生,流浪狗四处游荡,停车场里喇叭声不断,要是真正是安静的德里机场,应该那里也要管控。

印度的交通实在不敢恭维,据说最好的路就是从德里到Agra(阿哥拉,泰姬陵所在地)的高速公路260公里,通常要开4个半到5个钟,当然现在好多了,因为GOOGLE地图 可以预计并告诉你一个更准确的时间,笔者在4年多前去的时候还有一段高架路可以开到120公里/小时,大部分的路都像国内的省道,建在地面之上,没有人,车,畜分离。

(笔者2013年从阿哥拉回德里经过的那条高速公路的一段,可以开到120码,我猜原因是新修的,两边还没有人烟的原因)

(这是我2013年从德里去阿哥拉经过的地方,像不像我们某个小镇的集市)

但是总是听人诉苦说从来没超过70公里/小时,不晓得是怎么回事,因为它们也是收费的公路,所以也就不再抱怨我们南方的虎门大桥了。德里20公里的路要开1个小时很正常,这就是我的当地企业主朋友们每天日常生活的一部分。一般的公路没有专用的行人道,马路离路边的商铺也不远,很少有红绿灯,对向的车道就用30CM高的花坛隔着,说是花坛,里面基本都是枯萎的树木,花坛边上用黑白相间的油漆标识着警戒线。每个行人想穿过马路就随意穿过,完全不顾自身安危和行驶车辆的安全,用同行同事的话说就是“They do Whatever They Want”(他们想做什么就做什么)。

(2013年GURGAON 街头的马路一景,看多谐和的畜车一体)

同许多国人好奇的一样,我也见过很多的司机将后视镜折叠起来开车的,甚至据说TATA有款车就是不配后视镜的,原因就是没有后视镜他们更容易穿插前行。我的企业主朋友开玩笑说如果能在德里开车,在全世界哪里开车都不怕了,但是他的太太补充说孟买的交通更差,那还是不要去孟买了。在德里,我估计有70%的车有大大小小被擦过的痕迹。

但是我朋友的几辆车从我去年过去时新买到今年再去还完好无损,不知道是因为有专职司机驾驶的原因,还是大家都离他远远的。反正去年我们周末说要出去在德里市内逛一下,他没提用他的司机载我们,倒是我同事说去阿哥拉他主动安排了司机全程陪同,原因我们后面琢磨着德里市内一些景区附近实在是太堵了,用寸步难行一点也不过分,而去阿哥拉好歹算条路。

(2016年,红堡附近的拥挤街道)

如果你要在德里打的,一不小心就容易被绕路,价格比中国便宜一些。

4年多前我在酒店附近问一个TUTU,结果不知从哪里哗的冒出上十个司机来,没有咪表报了个价被宰了,实际的距离并不远,后来总结经验不要问他们要花多少时间,也不能怪他们,因为他们实在是没有时间概念,比较好的问法应该是有多远,然后折算价格。当然现在好多了,有UBER以及一个本土的快车运营公司,可惜需要手机能上网,而且司机能打给你,所以我只试过从酒店到机场,让酒店人员帮忙叫车,我到了机场再付钱。德里的公交我没有坐过,其实我感觉和我在曼谷见到的差不多,小小的一辆巴士上挤满了人。但是在马路上也有很多那种我们20多前的那种长型的公汽,我也分不清他们是市内巴士,还是跨市巴士,因为在晚上11点多我还能在马路上看见那种车在等人,而且顶上还有能堆货物的架子。

(2013年的从德里去阿哥拉的路上的场景)

我朋友告诉我印度的火车非常便宜,就是时间要的长点,但我没敢去试过。如果你好奇他们的地铁,倒是建议你去挤一下,而且还设有专门的女士车厢,以免被人揩油。尤其是一些热门的换乘站点,和深圳广州一样的拥挤,2013年去的时候还能看见地铁的一些运营信息。

(2013年德里地铁第一阶段的投资回报说明,第一阶段总投资23亿美金,2011年已经回本)

(2013年时发布的2011年10月份的运营数据 – 每天180万客流量)

德里的地铁从2002年开通运营,截止2017年德里已经有了7条地铁线路,贯穿整个新德里市区和周边卫星城,还有新的另外2条地铁正在开工建设中,都是国际水准。地铁上也能看见真枪实弹的警察,路线图是那种一张纸的那种,不会告诉你现在到哪了,下个站是哪里。地铁里也很少看到广告,让我很疑惑这么好的地段为什么没有人利用。

(2013年的德里地铁,不仔细看其实和国内的地铁差不多,仔细留意会发现很少有广告信息)

未完待续。。。

一个商务访问者眼中的德里 第一部分

看过网上的一些印度游记,大多是以个人或团体旅游客的身份来描述的,而且近些年随着国际旅游热的兴起,去印度的游客大有上升势头,因此游记也越来越详尽。近些年去印度投资考察的华人也不少,但估计都忙于挣钱,较少有时间将经历写出来。趁一时兴起,将自己以往三次商务游的经历做个汇总,补充一些不同视角下的亲历,无非就是人生基本的吃喝玩乐行作,政治就少谈了,哪个国的老百姓都没有像国人一样关心政治,吃饱喝足才重要。关于工作相关的部分,我会在下篇文章中拿我在印度的几家供应商来做说明。

本篇文章共计约30+页1万字,因为太长,分为3个分篇,这里放第一部分,剩下的两部分请到网站www.supplierlifecycle.com博客部分查看。

这是我4年多来第三次访问印度,上次的印度行是去年,准确的说是德里,或者说是新德里,每次都是大约1周的时间,匆匆忙忙,下午由香港或者广州始发,抵达德里,然后由德里深夜出发,清晨抵达香港或者广州。据说欧洲到德里的飞机通常都是凌晨才到德里,之后停留大约3个钟用于飞机安全检查和物料补给,机组人员换班即刻又飞回欧洲,想想效率还是蛮高的。

很多人以为新德里和老德里是两个城市,其实两个都指的是德里市,无非因为城市扩张,旧德里容不下那么多淘金和北漂的人,所以城市在向南扩张之后以德里门为界大多数的外来人口集中在旧城区外围,形成了所谓的新德里,和中国近些年的城市化非常相似,在城市的郊外扩展来扩大现有城区的领地, 并称为某某新城。区别在于每次来,笔者实在没见到什么如同国内建设得耸入云天的高层建筑和住宅小区,即便在1976年开始设立的NOIDA (New Okhla Industrial Development Authority新欧克拉工业发展区) 

(NOIDA SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE,里面有各种企业,我说是一个Industrial Park, 朋友也表示默许,有多道进出的门,每道门设了人工收费站,见车就收,工业区内的车按月缴,据说原因是补贴里面的马路的维护费,我有一次经过,门卫看见我有行李还想多收,被我朋友吓唬说这是中国来的高官,你们不可胡来,他们就善罢,真是好笑)

晚上开车从偌大的工业区内出来,在附近也看不到亮灯的高楼,反倒是上周经过了几栋目测楼层在30层左右的建筑,问过当地人才得知那是公寓,也就是我们国内所说的小区,可惜当地人说老板因为烂尾楼已经Behind the Bar (进监狱了),想想成功与成仁真的只差一墙之隔。

说起房价,印度的普通阶层其实是不怎么知晓的,因为他们实在是买不起,也不像国内这么普及,铺天盖地的广告和宣传册,买得起的买不起的说起每个小区和新出品的楼盘价格如数家珍,随便在哪条大街上走10米就能看见一个中介公司,以及玻璃窗上张贴的出租出售信息。同事在集团孟买分部工作,好歹也算外企的精英,家庭条件不错,老爸是法官,妹妹在英国留学,自己本科上完就去读了MBA,知道中国人喜欢打听房价,特地告诉我孟买最贵的房价在10万RMB每平方左右,相比这些外企的经理头衔职员月薪5-6千人民币,确实也蛮贵的。

孟买我至今没去过,但是在德里的城内,我在一个傍晚去一个只有40个房间,每个房间里有3 X 7米的游泳池的高档酒店里吃饭的时候见识过的。在经过几条干净的街道,街道旁绿树荫荫,四周有护栏,门口有铁栅栏和保安,里面有柔弱的灯光照射出来,围墙内的建筑修得就像厦门岛内的那种曾经殖民过的风格,但是又让你一眼看不完,数不着。同行的印度朋友17岁之后父母就把他一人丢在美国上了8年的学,之后回到了德里,他是那个酒店的会员,每周从NOIDA下班回家的路上会经过那个酒店,并到那个酒店健身,会友,因此他对那个区域有一定的了解。他告诉我那个区域是真正的富豪区,因为每个HOUSE(房子)的价格过亿人民币,我顺口说房子装修还蛮精致的,他说真正贵的不是房子,而是那个地价,在德里城区发展起来之前那里是肯定没有这么贵的,这让我猜起其实孟买的房价应该也是地价贵,从而推高了房价,建房子本身是花不了多少钱的。因为孟买是海滨城市,如同深圳,不填海是没有发展的土地空间的。我向他提起我2007年起买的两套房,以及最近一两年的翻倍的涨幅,他也毫不忌讳的告诉我他在几年前买了地皮,但是至今涨幅不大,我只好安慰他说你只需要等待,一定会涨的。我想他是见过世面,有全球视野的人,因为他有朋友在法国同印度军队有军火生意往来,每月都要来印度,在香港有朋友是客机飞行员,应该不会做错决策。

回忆第一次的印度之旅,依稀记得那时来印度的华人并不多,在飞机上和下榻的CORWNE PLAZA – TODAY GURGAON酒店碰到几个,其中几个20岁左右的年轻人从温州来投靠一个在德里开酒店的亲戚,在飞机上坐我前排,拿着空乘发的入境登记表看不懂,我才意识到他们根本就不懂英文!这就是温州人敢闯的个性。一个来印度推广产品的技术人员,具体是什么产品已经忘了,还有一位在酒店早餐碰到的香港人,做财务经理,大家同是华人,有一种他乡遇老乡的心情,再加上偌大的酒店也见不到其他的华人,所以感觉分外亲切,简单聊过感觉一样 – 一穷二白,但潜力巨大,毕竟人口基数摆在那里。上周在来德里的飞机上读过龙应台先生的“目送”散文集,里面提到她有个香港朋友多年前去贵州旅游,就发现一个奇怪的现象,一群人在田里干活,另外一群人就蹲在山头的田埂上远远的看着干活的人,而且一看就是一整天。她的朋友问那些看的人你们在看什么,他们说“没事干啊”。每次来到德里,给我的都是这种感觉,观察那些无论白天或者黑夜走在马路上的人们,他们永远是那种慢慢悠悠,不是那种在在越南的河内街头看到的悠闲,也不是北京逛街式的赏阅,而是那种无所事事的慢慢吞吞。穿着不着边幅,观察树上枝头偶尔停留的鸟,然后去找块小石子把它赶走 – 这就是一个阳光明媚的8点钟在酒店的拐角处一个40岁光景的男人的欢乐。

(2016年马路旁的场景,就那么在地上悠闲的躺着,等客人上门。后面的围墙上铁丝网林立,墙上的牌子上写着:警告!不允许翻越,否则会被射击)

印度截止2012年大约人口数12.4亿,虽然人均国民总收入不到4,000美金,但仅仅以1%的富人来计算,就有1200多百万的富人,相当于两个以色列。可见其消费的潜在能力并不低,笔者有幸被邀请到当地朋友私人家里做客,笔者看来感觉像是别墅,因为进入那条狭窄脏乱的马路需要经过一个设置有可移动障碍栏的路口,障碍栏上用油笔粗粗的写着DEHLI POLICE (德里警察)。马路的两边商店能看到一些小型超市,以及DENTAL CLINIC (牙科诊所),这就是高档区域的标志,在国内你能看到牙科诊所的地方基本也就是大地方了。房子有单独的长型的庭院,只够停放车辆,灯光照过佣人匆匆跑过来开门,晚上进去的时候里面已经停满了约5辆奔驰,奥迪,应该是大户人家。一层350多个平方,总共3层的3个大家庭居住在一起,朋友笑说房子是他太太家里出钱买的,因为他只买了车,并介绍他太太是HERO 家族的成员,而HERO在印度的地位等同于嘉陵摩托在中国的地位。

在飞机上已经填过入境申报卡了,不知从何时开始印度的口号已经改为Welcome to Incredible India, 你可以将Incredible理解成 Difficult, Unbelievable, Colorful, Wonderful, 大家可以自由发挥想象或者百度来解读这个单词的意思, 就像外籍友人一下飞机,看见迎面而来“Welcome to Dream China”,其实后面还有一溜的字写着中国梦的解读:富强,民主,文明,和谐,自由,平等,公正,法治,爱国,敬业,诚信,友善。


机场一如以往的干净: 地面自动扶梯的两侧和墙上很少有商业性营销广告,也很少有印度或者德里的公益性广告,完全不同于台北机场醒目的给台湾旅游的定位-The Heart of Asia (台湾情),或者香港的品牌广告 Best of All, It’s in Hongkong (尽享-最香港)。从飞机下来,直到到达海关工作柜台,一路上步行10分钟左右,除了摆在走道柱子旁的Pepsi的自动售货机和几张当地的一些展会信息之外,一眼望去,实在再也找不到其他的广告了。在一个被称为全球人流量最大的机场,简直让我不可思议。

不过在机场的另外一端,当你站在机票柜台时,在你的四周你还是能看到一些广告,不过在我印象当中基本就是那几家印度本土的大公司给霸占了,比如TATA,Reliance。在机场的入口就有安检让我出示护照和打印的行程单是让我这个在国内已经习惯了拿身份证出来SHOW的人有点不习惯的地方,一时没反应过来,还到处找护照。

通过一个机场其实可以看出一个国家和城市的端倪。比如你要是即将离开一个不是你生活的城市,你一定希望借最后机会去采购一些礼品来证明你到过了。在首尔,我试过晚上9点多打车去乐天机场店,因为网上有攻略说那里有我所想要买的便宜东西。跟司机沟通不了,他也没办法告诉我那个时间商店已经关门了,因此只有按着我在地图上圈的位置走,等到了才发现黑黑一片,唯独灯光下关着的门。而在德里机场,和其他机场一样,除各大暴利品牌的烟,酒,巧克力,化妆品,箱包外,其次就是为数不多的本国文化类的商品,如果说汇一个大国之商品于一个首都机场,可见制造能力实在是有限,商品实在是匮乏:纪念性的冰箱贴,钥匙扣;数的清的几种糕点,而且很多还是印度南部生产的;各式的大象木头和塑料制品,反正我也不知道木质的是手工的还是机器加工的;茶叶以及shawls(披肩)。在德里的机场,你可以看到药店,里面也可以买很多各种声称是纯植物制的化妆品,反正原料植物五花八门,好像所有的植物都能提取出精华素一样,价格也不贵,这是我所喜欢的地方,比如植物牙膏。想想其实化妆品和药物同属一个范畴,也没有什么特别的,只是国内待久了,从来不见机场卖药,所以一时有些不适应。但是更加好奇的是药店里各式的药都有卖,除了价格稍贵的一些特种药,比如翻版的癌症药被放在售货员柜台后的架子上,被人翻得最多的就是零散杂乱的洒落在一个货架上的各种价格便宜的伟哥了,只有成分,警告“WARNING -H DRUG”和价格标,连基本的说明书也没有,甚至有些连包装盒也没有,大板大板的锡膜包装的各种颜色不同大小的药丸用橡皮筋一扎一扎的缠着,如同国内早些年卖的颗粒浓缩牛奶片,你去抽就好了。相比市内,这些药还是要贵一些,整体便宜的原因就是印度只有药品加工工艺的知识产权保护,没有药品成分的知识产权保护。

(2017年,德里机场药店)

德里机场的另外一个好处就是书籍相比欧美要便宜很多,当然我说的是英文书,其实书的售价和国内机场差不多,毕竟书的价格是出版社统一的。德里的机场是没有可以供国外人用的免费WIFI,至少我是几次过去都试过了,填了国内的手机号,就是收不到验证码,真是让人失望。

上次去跑了一圈Redfort(红堡),Connaught Place(康诺特广场,有点像广州的数量繁多的地下批发商场),以及附近一些叫BAZAR (集市)的地方和

广场附近的小店一条街,以及被TUTU三轮车司机骗到的专宰外国人的礼品店-为什么说是宰外国人的是因为第一三轮车司机故意开了个低价拉我们过去(后面才意识到这只是一颗诱人的糖果);第二那家店里晚上8点多还在营业,里面以老外居多,不合常理;第三在上二楼阁楼的楼梯口用中文贴着大大的“请上二楼”,有点“请君入瓮”的意思,而且里面的东西超贵;第四等我们空手出来的时候那个司机还在那里等我们,还怪我们为什么没买东西,可见哪里的黑幕都一样。如果要买正宗好质量的,建议还是去品牌店,比如我之前买过一个1千多人民币的檀香木的大象,到现在还能闻到香味,家里老人睡眠不好,放在枕边安神。

(2013年买的檀木大象雕制品)

唯独我一直不能理解的是相比找过的那些地方,红堡的木制大象工艺品是最便宜的,要知道红堡在印度的地位就像中国的故宫,你见过故宫的东西是最便宜的吗? 披肩我曾经在 Connaught Place批发过50条回来送朋友,最后10多块人民币一条,不过价格被砍到起初报价的1/10,质量就一般了,反正我也不懂。我太太陪国内南方某市发改委领导去德里的某品牌店买过不打折的纯羊毛披肩,价格1千多人民币,那应该是真货。

印度政府从2017年4月1日起调整电子旅游签证计划,将“电子旅游”(e-tourist)签证更名为“电子签证”(e-Visa),并细分为三类,即电子旅游签证(e-Tourist Visa)、电子商务签证(e-Business Visa)和电子医疗签证(e-Medical Visa)。印度的很多机场和港口已经采用了电子签,随便在淘宝上找家旅行店就可以代办,加急3-5天的时间就可以出签,也不用寄护照过去,效率还是蛮高的。

但是在清关柜台,你会发现印度工作人员们效率就不敢恭维了,他们对我们是如此的不舍,笔者试过11个人的排队,花了13分钟去清关,我没有统计过香港的效率,但是大家经历过南方城市的清关速度的可以评论。就在那一分多钟了,我细细观察了他们所使用的装置。指纹机是日本NEC公司的,但是目测应该是最低配置,因为连提示音都没有,只有图标显示。摄像头是瑞士罗技公司出品的,因为没有固定好,用胶带缠绕在台面。柜台上正对客户1米多高的位置摆放着一个如同国内某饭店或手机店门前自由取阅的传单架子,里面插着一摞印刷好的彩色客户满意度调查表,笔者心想国内连轻轻一按就能提交的满意度调查都没有多少人愿意做,谁还会花时间来填这个表,更何况等待过关的人也不允许有这个停留时间。好奇取了一张留存,回来却发现印刷质量太差了,整个背面的文字都重影了。

离开柜台,还会再经过一个坐在通道旁边等你提供盖好签证章的护照给他检查的人,不晓得真正的用意是什么,就那么一翻扫一眼就过去了,想为什么不设置一个自助扫描的门禁,就像国内常见的地铁门一样。

未完待续。。。