拜访的工厂多了之后也练就了“火眼金睛”，一目了然知道工厂在作业指导书这个细小的环节上仅仅只是走走形式，还是落实到实处，正所谓魔鬼都在细节里。比如作业指导书的适用范围是广泛而包罗万象的还是具体到每款产品型号的？其框架结构，排版方式？最后的修订日期是2年之内的，还是从来就没发生过？有确认，有审批吗？有被人翻阅过吗？是横挂还是竖挂示于员工？详细程度如何？ If one person has visited too many factories, then he/she will have good intuition , knowing only at a glance whether the factory take the work instruction as a form or in real implementation. Like the old saying, devils are in details. For example, are the work instruction applied for a wide product ranges or each product model specifically? Does It has a good structure and layout? Is it revised in the last 2 years, or never? Are there any confirmation of examination and approval? Has it ever been read by others? Is it hanged horizontally or vertically to present to the staff for easy reading? Are details included?
We describe Supplier Lifecycle Management as “an end-to-end, cradle to grave approach to managing suppliers in a transparent, structured and integrated manner”. Perhaps more important is the purpose of SLM, which is: to recognise suppliers as a prime source of value to the organisation and deliver that value by putting them at the heart of procurement strategy and management.
近日拜读冯文亮先生的职场小说“冲出重围-快速精益之道”，对此又有了更深的认识，书中有几个观点值得借鉴。Having read A Quick Qay of Lean Production recently, a professional novel written by Feng Wenliang, I have had some deeper understanding of the above issues. There are some points of view that are worth learning in the book.
1.河槽容纳的流量=淤泥等原因占据的流量 + 河槽的实际流量。而清淤只需要清理一些重点河段，就可以保持整条河道的畅通。 1. Gross river flow=space taken by sludge + net river flow. Dredging can be undertaken only at some major river segments in order to keep the whole river course smooth.
2.车间人分三类：多人，少人，新人，工厂人力资源调配信息不顺畅。。。可以将几条生产线设置为人力调配线，调配线的数量是可变的，根据生产线每天的实际需求而定，所有多的人都放掉调配线上，确认的生产线就去调配线上领取。。。调配线还兼有新人培训的功能。 2. A labor force structure in workshops can be categorized into excessive workforce, short workforce or new comers. Disordered human resource information gives rise to many problems. A solution is to allocate personnel in several deployment lines which are variable in number and determined by the actual demand of product lines. All the spare workforce is enrolled in personnel deployment lines, ready to be employed by a product line. A deployment line also helps to train new workers.
3.生产线最重要两个工位：第一工位和动态的瓶颈工位。第一工位决定最大的输出产能，动态的瓶颈工位就是半成品（WIP）积累最多的工位，决定“消化“顺畅，实现最大输出产能的可能性。 3. The two most important working positions on a production line are the first position and the dynamic bottleneck position. Whereas the first position decides the capability, the dynamic bottleneck one, where work in process accumulate the most, decides digestion, fluency and the possibility to achieve the maximum capability.
4.工厂管理先治病，再强身健体。找到工厂快速改善的办法如同治病，而5S，标准化，设备保养等等则如同健体，不见得有多少可见的直接经济效益，但至关重要。 4. A good factory management calls for wiping out the root of problem first and then finding ways for reinforcement and optimization. The root of problem lies in how to achieve fast improvement, and ways for reinforcement and optimization includes various methods such as 5S, standardization and equipment maintenance. They are steps of importance although they may not bring out much direct economic benefits.
5.库存是万恶之源。 5. Stock is the root of all evil.
拜读过蔡红刚Caims先生的短文，名字就叫“产品的感性质量”，强调中国制造和德国制造的区别某种程度不在制造能力而在于设计能力，两者之间设计能力的差距可能是一代人，原因在于中国才刚开始由农业进入工业化，而德国已从工业化延伸到服务业，而服务业是要讲究体验和感觉的，这也是所谓从量变到质变的一个飞跃。 I have got the honor to read a short article named “The Aesthetic Quality of a Product” written by Mr. Caims (Honggang Cai), which emphasizes that the differences between ‘Made in China’ and ‘Made in Germany’, to some degree, lie in design capability rather than manufacturing capability. The gap of design capability between China and Germany seems to be a generation, since China has just evolved from an agricultural country into an industrialized one; whereas Germany has extended from industrialization to service industry. Service industry, however, focuses on experience and feelings. Therefore, this transformation in Germany can be regarded as a so-called change from quantity to quality in leaps and bounds.
供应商自评有点像求职者的简历，国内不流行推荐信，但是猎头的推荐其实也是另外形式的推荐信。推荐信有点像供应商请第三方审核认证过后颁发的各种认证证书，比如ISO9001，ISO14001，等等。推荐信可以被看做是一种背书（ENDORSEMENT）,推荐人的资历深浅，领袖水平很大程度影响着求职者在招聘者心中的印象，从而也决定他/她的报价（期望薪酬）和潜在价值。供应商所提供的ISO9001等各类证书同样起到类似的作用，尽管都是所认可的认证机构颁发的证书，但是不同的认证机构的影响力显然是不一样的，他们当初认证时的费用也是不一样的，这个决定了他们颁发的证书的可信性（CREDIBILITY）的差异。 Supplier self-assessment is a little bit similar to job hunter’s resumes. Recommendation letter is not prevalent in China, but the recommendations from headhunters are also recommendation letters in another form. Recommendation letters is somewhat similar to various certificates which are awarded after the audit and certification of the third party requested by the suppliers, such as ISO9001, ISO14001, etc. Recommendation letter can be seen as a kind of endorsement, as qualifications, status in the field will affect the impression of job hunters in recruiters to a large degree, which will determines his or her “quotation”(expected salary) and potential value. Various certificates like ISO9001 provided by suppliers play similar roles. Although the certificates are all awarded by accepted certification authority, different certification authorities exert different influence obviously, and the fees for certifying vary accordingly, which determines differences in credibility of certificates awarded.
The Commerce Department has urged one trading company to deliver the goods for several times, during which the trading company has provided many reasons for postponing the delivery time: the design had been changed; the environmental inspectors closed the upstream factories; they had holidays during Spring Festival, etc. As they have been hastened for several times, the sales representatives of the trading company had no alternatives but to provide a reason, or nonsense: the worker were on strike so that the goods could not be made. At this time, it is of no use threatening that they will be fined if they cannot offer goods. To solve the problem, the Commerce Department suggested that the supplier management department to examine it on the spot. The subtext is that the supplier management department was about to solve this problem. Of course, the audit was not conducted finally since the general manager considered that there is nothing for audit due to no production. The question is: what is the audit; what is the effect of audit; when will the audit take effect?
There is Hierarchy of Risk Controls - ERICPD in Safety management.In general ERI are more like Engineering controls and CPD are administrational approaches. The risk control pyramid helps you to think about the better approaches when you encounter some risk problems in operation and real life, as there is probably no way to eliminate all the risk but control them to minimum level.
In the book of (THE IRON MAN: Elon Musk's Quest to Forge a Fantastic Future)《硅谷钢铁侠》by Ashlee Vance (阿什利•万斯), it's suggested one important factor to be more successful is Depth of Knowledge and Cross-boundary Learning. The depth of knowledge means focus of one narrow field and to be a professional person in that area, and method is reading and consulting the top professionals. Cross-boundary learning means thinking out of the box to create new cognition and provide source of innovation, and experience of Musk is to research the core concept of different areas and connect them to the real world.