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The basic competence Supplier Quality Professionals should have 供应商质量专业人士需要注意的几点事项

特质Competence 1:需要一定的情商 Good EQ

一是要为人热情,并主动与人沟通。质量工程师除了能够解决已经出现的问题外,更需要在质量问题出现之前就能发现质量的隐患,然后协助其他部门主动预防和解决它。让别人相信隐患确实存在,并且认可它,是对人的沟通能力的考验,要主动沟通,避免被动沟通。二是要注意沟通技巧。质量管理工作在某种意义上说是得罪人的工作,是专挑别人毛病的,如果不注意沟通的技巧,就容易导致或明或暗的冲突和对抗,好心没有好结果,甚至影响部门间的合作和工作的效率和质量。要做到这点,必须端正心态,不要因为自己发现了别人没注意的问题就沾沾自喜,颐指气使,这样很容易造成双方的矛盾。不仅不能解决问题,反而会激化矛盾。

特质Competence 2:喜欢去现场"望闻问切" Management by walking around (MBWA)

这是说质量工程师遇到质量问题的时候要亲自去现场确认问题,并像中医老师那样“望、闻、问、切”,用眼睛、耳朵、嘴巴、肢体等来确认问题,最后通过大脑的综合分析找到问题的解决方案。有这么一个例子,某新产品在开始量产的时候,生产线发现某个元器件的管脚不容易插进PCB板的孔,于是问题上报。研发工程师就察看PCB板的孔的规定是直径1.3±0.1的圆孔,问题到底是出在孔的直径不符合规定,还是元器件的脚边长不符合规定?于是,该工程师再让IQC去测量PCB板的孔径以及脚的对角线长度,看是否有材料尺寸超标。由于该公司没有精密的仪器可以测量PCB板的孔径,于是IQC主管说没法测量,并要求设计部门重新更改尺寸,结果双方开始僵持并处于对峙状态。后来IQC的一位小姑娘另外拿了几个元器件及PCB板来试装配,结果发现可以插进去,只不过是稍微紧了一点,但不会对产品构成任何质量隐患。于是去问IQC主管和研发工程师是否可以继续使用,当时这两位工程师都哑口无言,最后同意继续生产和使用。其实这个质量问题的处理并不难,只要研发工程师及IQC主管都去现场看一下,确认一下问题,验证一下,就很容易解决问题。

日本质量管理界有一个非常出名的术语叫“三现”,即现场、现实和现物,就是要求遇到质量问题的时候要去现场了解现物的现实情况,而不是闭门造车,也不是在办公室里想当然。我再加一个“三动”,即动脑、动手、动脚,以配合三现。

特质Competence 3:喜欢广泛阅读,认真学习和缜密思考 Broading reading and process thinking

质量管理科学随着社会生产力的发展而不断发展,是一门多学科知识的集合。我们谈流程管理,质量管理就如同一张大网,每个管理环节就如同这张网上的各个连接点,一环扣一环,每个环节的缺失就会造成一个质量的缺口。因此对质量人员的要求就希望是知识涉猎广泛,尤其是供应商质量管理人员,需要与公司内外各个等级的人打交道。比如我们要解决产品质量问题,首先必须了解产品的基础知识;要开质量会议,就需要懂得开会的技巧、与人沟通的技巧以及激励的技巧等;比如要改进质量问题,需要懂得团队管理的技巧,包括懂得一些心理学的知识;要推动其他部门改进质量问题,需要具备领导能力和变革技巧;比如要争取高层对质量工作的重视,需要懂得变革管理的技巧,等等。所有这些,需要大量学习、阅读和思考。只有广泛的涉猎,才能大大增加知识的储备,才不会出现“书到用时方恨少”的窘况。也只有当你博学,会思考,可以帮助团队解决问题,团队成员才会更喜欢你,拿你当自家人看待。

特质Competence 4:喜欢问且会问为什么 Ask Why?  

优秀的质量工程师要会问问题,特别要会问为什么。日本丰田汽车有一个出名的词组就是5Why,也就是连续问五个为什么。比如,你看到一位工人,正将铁屑洒在机器之间的通道地面上。那你怎么用5Why的方法询问问题呢。

  你问:“为何你将铁屑洒在地面上?”

  他答:“因为地面有点滑,不安全。”

  你问:“为什么会滑,不安全?”

  他答:“因为那儿有油渍。”

  你问:“为什么会有油渍?”

  他答:“因为机器在滴油。”

  你问:“为什么会滴油?”

  他答:“因为油是从连结器泄漏出来的。”

  你问:“为什么会泄漏?”

  他答:“因为连结器内的橡胶油封已经磨损了。”

如果上述问题问到第一个为什么就结束了,那么将铁屑之所以洒到地上好像还是个正当的理由;问到第二个为什么,那么把油渍去除干净即可;问到第三个为什么,那么拿个容器把油接住即可……前面四个为什么都没有找到问题的根本原因,问到第五个为什么,问题的根本原因找到了,需要更换橡胶油封。所以,日本人特别喜欢打破砂锅问到底。这种精神特别值得大家学习。

上面所举的五问为什么,并不是要我们学习它的这种形式,不是所有的问题都要问五次,有的可能问一个为什么,就问到点子上了,而有的可能需要问十次,才能问到问题的根本。我们学习的是这种提问的实质,即刨根问底,找出元凶。如果质量工程师不善于问为什么,那么往往看到的只是问题的表象,而不是问题的本质;或者就根本发现不了问题,而只是被动地接受各种现状。比如有些质量工程师在制定工艺文件或者质量文件时习惯于沿用公司“老前辈”的方法,而不问问为什么,不问问合不合理,不问问适宜的环境和条件。所以,要成为优秀的质量工程师,一定要学会问为什么,善于问为什么,目的是找到问题的根源。

Quality is NOT free 质量不免费

"Buy one and get one for free" is popularly used to promote sales and in such case the quality of both are same. In some other cases, if you go to special promotion area in supermarket, you will also can see some expiring goods, especially food, of which the valid date comes very closer and they are offered for free but bundled with other normal items. Such goods are quality "inferior" as the shelf life is shorter.If you often stay in hotels, you will get different types of "free" ball-point pens as gift, and many of them can only be used for couple of times before broken.

"买一送一”经常被用于促销,这个时候两件物品的质量常常是一样的。另一种情形下,如果你去到超市促销品区,你常常能看到一些快过期商品,尤其是食物,它们的保质期即将到了,因此被打折或者免费赠送-前提是它们通常被同其他正常食品捆绑销售。这些商品的品质会逊色于正常出售的商品-因为他们的保质期会更短些。如果你常常出差入住酒店,你也会有机会拿到一些免费的圆珠笔-作为免费赠品,经常它们用不了几次就不能再用了。

Later when our sales and marketing department asks the purchasing department to source some "gift" like USB, notebook, Key rings for them to give to their customers, those items are usually treated like non-trading goods, which means they are not for trading purpose, thus they are exempt from most of quality controls – no Supplier Audit and Validation, no formal sample approval, no process quality monitoring, no Delivery quality inspection, and even no visit to discuss with the vendor face to face as we have Taobao, Alibaba, etc. which makes the process look so simple. Usually the quality is not as good as what are sold in the stores, and some customers do not care either as they get for free, or they get used to such quality level gifts, and some others notice the quality issues but do not give any comments or feedback to us for improvement as there could be no need since it may only happen once.

后来当我们的销售和市场部寻求采购部的协助去购买一些小礼品,譬如 USB,笔记本,钥匙扣等,用于提供给客户做礼品,那些小东西常常被当做“非贸易类商品”而处理,意味着它们不将用于交易目的,因此它们豁免于大多数的质量控制环节 – 没有供应商审核和确认,没有正式的样品审批,没有过程控制的监控,没有交货质量的检查,甚至连参观供应商同他们面对面交流也没有,因为我们有TAOBAO,ALIBABA等等,这些都另我们的交易过程变得简单便捷。常常这些小东西的质量并没有在商店里正常销售的质量好,一些拿到他们的客户也并不在乎-因为它们是免费的,要么他们已经习惯了这种低档次的小礼物,还有一些客户意识到也在乎这些质量,但是他们并不会给任何的评论或者反馈以供供应商能有机会去改进-因为这个小礼品很可能只是赠送一次而已。

Think about if you pay and buy from the stores, or website stores and you notice what you get are quality inferior, either functional or even just some un-noticeable small points in a hidden corner, probably you will "claim" to the seller – if you are a quality caring person. This claim will give information to the seller to improve their products. So it sounds positive and value adding. 

想象一下如果你是付钱从商店,网店买到的那些东西,你注意到了你拿到手的是质量有一点点瑕疵的产品,要么是功能性的,要么甚至只有在一些非常隐蔽的某个角落有几点难以发现的小瑕疵,很有可能你都会投诉给店家 – 如果你对质量有要求的话。这个投诉将提供一个反馈信息给店家来改善他们的产品,因此听起来是积极而且增值的。

But why if you get for free you say nothing and if you pay, you have lots to say and then the supplier gets much higher possibility to improve?

但是为什么如果你拿到是免费的,你什么也不说,如果你是付钱的,供应商就有更多的机会来改善产品呢?

In a organization there are many processes and activities which are inefficient and non-value added, and many people suffer from them, somebody complain for them, and only top management address them. One important reason is that those areas suck the profit of the company and lower down the competitiveness of the company. Eventually only the management is responsible for that. One good way to solve this is to change the debit to be asset.

在一个组织里面有许多的流程和活动并不是高效或者增值的。有很多的人在忍受它们,有一些人在抱怨它们,然而仅有少数的管理层在强调它们。其中一个重要的原因是因为它们在吸食公司的利润,降低公司的竞争力,最后只有管理层对这些负责。因此一个好的办法是将这些“负债”变为“资产”。

There is a test lab to check different samples, for examples the durability of shipment samples selected from source inspection before delivery, and the engineering approval samples before serial production. As all the test cost are absorbed by the test lab as operation cost, so as long as the report says pass, then everyone is happy, and in case it's failed, for the shipment samples test, people just say "ops" as the customer cannot wait until the result from long lasting cycle test so it's decided to be released before result comes out. Then next time, it may appear again and people just think "the quality is just like this" after couple to times. For the engineering samples test, since it's for free, then people just resend the samples for re-test – though it may delay the project, anyway it's difficult to blame the delay to single test failure as there could be many other accuses. Furthermore, some suppliers start to ask the test lab staff to "support" setting up their new machines for free even when actually the test staff is not so "expert" up to trainer level.

有一个实验室用于测试不同的样品,比如从即将发货的货前检查中抽取出的大货样来测试寿命,或者是在批量生产前的工程样做产前批准用。因为所有的测试费用当做运营成本来处理,因此只要报告说“通过”,每个人都很高兴,但是如果仅仅只是“失败”,对于大货样的测试,人们只是说一声“遗憾”,因为客户等不了很长时间的寿命测试,因此货物已经早被决定提前走了,下次也有可能再发生这样的事情,几次之后人们会想“这个质量只能做成这样”。对于工程样而言,因为它们是免费的,人们仅仅只是重新提交样品再次做测试-尽管它们会延长项目的时间,但是实际情况是很难将项目的延期仅仅只归罪于测试的失败 – 因为实际情况是还会有其他的“罪魁祸首”。甚至,一些供应商开始邀请实验室的同事“免费支援”他们新机器的设立-以便实际情况是这些同事并非“培训级别”的专家水平。

Consider if you get test or consulting service from a third party and get charged, it will be totally different result. Since the third party test cost usually is very high, then the samples will be tested pass before being submitted and issues will be quickly solved. In the same logic, the engineering sample test cost is counted in the project total cost, and the shipment samples test cost is added onto the source inspection cost, and then the customers start to focus on the quality of testing and reports, and point out the weakness and errors.

考虑如果你的测试或者培训咨询是在第三方机构进行的,你是付过费的,这个时候结果就完全不一样了。因为第三方的测试费用常常比较高,这些样品往往会事先测试一遍再提交给第三方,如果有问题也会很快解决完再提交。同样的逻辑,工程样的测试费用计入项目总成本里面,计算给客户,大货样的测试费用加到发货前的检查费用里,这个时候客户开始关注这些测试和报告的质量了,并指出一些不足和错误。

Some other typical cases are if the printing papers in a company are free, then people do not care about the format setting before printing and just click to send to printers – even in some case it could be dual side printing used. If the usage of printing papers are counted into the departmental cost and monitored, then the total usage drops down quickly.

其他一些常见的例子是公司的打印纸常常是免费供应的,没有人在乎那些文档的预览和格式设置,仅仅只是点击打印 – 即使很多时候是可以设置双面打印的。如果这些打印纸的使用计入每个部门费用里并监控的话,很快这些纸张的使用量就下降了。

If you want quality of your products or services be better and make you be more valuable to your customers, meanwhile to turn your team to be more details focused, I suggest you to think about these tips.

如果你希望你的产品和服务的质量变得更好,让他们变得对于你的客户更加有价值,同时让你的团队更加关注于细节,我建议你不妨试试这些小点子。

 

Thanks for your visits – Country Codes

As I wrote in the Author Introduction, WWW is an amazing space and there are already visitors from 64 countries hitting the pages since the foundation of site 2 weeks ago.

Unfortunately the plugin only displays the short name of those countries and for most of them I do not understand, and I believe you are the same with mesad. Furthermore the last update of the plugin is 2 years ago plus the contact information of the developer is not available anymore.

Thanks for your visits and trust. I have tabled the country codes list as below for your overview and easily search the full names in the website by "Search" function on each pages.

The country codes list:

 

世界各国国家代码简称 Country Codes List

AE-阿联酋(UNITED EMIRATES) 
AF-阿富汗(AFGHANISTAN) 
AL-阿尔巴尼亚(ALBANIA) 
AM-亚美尼亚(ARMENIA) 
AO-安哥拉(ANGOLA) 
AR-阿根廷(ARGENTINA) 
AT-奥地利(AUSTRIA) 
AU-澳大利亚(AUSTRALIA) 
AZ-阿塞拜疆(AZERBAIJAN(REPUBLIC)) 
B
BD-孟加拉(BANGLADESH) 
BE-比利时(BELGIUM) 
BF-布基纳法索(BURKINA FASO) 
BG-保加利亚(BULGARIA) 
BH-巴林(BAHREIN) 
BI-布隆迪(BURUNDI) 
BJ-贝宁(BENIN) 
BL-巴勒斯坦() 
BN-文莱(BRUNEI DARUSSALAM) 
BO-玻利维亚(BOLIVIA) 
BR-巴西(BRAZIL) 
BW-博茨瓦纳(BOTSWANA) 
BY-白俄罗斯(BYELORUSSIA) 
C
CA-加拿大(CANADA) 
CF-中非(CENTRAL AFRICA) 
CG-刚果(CONGO) 
CH-瑞士(SWITZERLAND) 
CL-智利(CHILE) 
CM-喀麦隆(CAMEROON) 
CN-中国(CHINA) 
CO-哥伦比亚(COLOMBIA) 
CR-哥斯达黎加(COSTA RICA) 
CS-捷克(CZECH REPUBIC) 
CU-古巴(CUBA) 
CY-塞浦路斯(CYPRUS) 
D
DE-德 国(GERMANY) 
DK-丹麦(DENMARK) 
DO-多米尼加共和国(DOMINICAN REPUBLIC) 
DZ-阿尔及利亚(ALGERIA) 
E
EC-厄瓜多尔(ECUADOR) 
EE-爱沙尼亚(ESTONIA) 
EG-埃及(EGYPT) 
ES-西班牙(SPAIN) 
ET-埃塞俄比亚(ETHIOPIA) 
F
FI-芬兰(FINLAND) 
FJ-斐济(FIJI) 
FR-法国(FRANCE) 
G
GA-加蓬(GABON) 
GB-英国(UNITED KINGDOM) 
GD-格林纳达(GRENADA) 
GE-格鲁吉亚(GEORGIA) 
GH-加纳(GHANA) 
GN-几内亚(GUINEA) 
GR-希腊(GREECE) 
GT-危地马拉(GUATEMALA) 
H
HK-香港特别行政区(HONG KONG) 
HN-洪都拉斯(HONDURAS) 
HU-匈牙利(HUNGARY) 
I
ID-印度尼西亚(INDONESIA) 
IE-爱尔兰(IRELAND) 
IL-以色列(ISRAEL) 
IN-印度(INDIA) 
IQ-伊拉克(IRAQ) 
IR-伊朗(IRAN) 
IS-冰岛(ICELAND) 
IT-意大利(ITALY) 
J
JM-牙买加(JAMAICA) 
JO-约旦(JORDAN) 
JP-日本(JAPAN) 
K
KG-吉尔吉斯坦(KYRGYZSTAN) 
KH-柬埔寨(KAMPUCHEA(CAMBODIA)) 
KP-北朝鲜(KOREA,DEM.PEOPLE'S) 
KR-韩国(REPUBLIC OF KOREA) 
KT-科特迪瓦共和国(COTE O'IVOIRE) 
KW-科威特(KUWATI) 
KZ-哈萨克(KAZAKHSTAN) 
L
LA-老挝(LAOS) 
LB-黎巴嫩(LEBANON) 
LC-圣卢西亚(SAINT LUEIA)
LI-列支敦士登(LIECHTENSTEIN) 
LK-斯里兰卡(SRI LANKA) 
LR-利比里亚(LIBERIA) 
LT-立陶宛(LITHUANIA) 
LU-卢森堡(LUXEMBOURG) 
LV-拉脱维亚(LATVIA) 
LY-利比亚(LIBYAN)

M
MA-摩洛哥(MOROCCO) 
MC-摩纳哥(MONACO) 
MD-摩尔多瓦(MOLDOVA,REPUBLIC OF) 
MG-马达加斯加(MADAGASCAR) 
ML-马里(MALI) 
MM-缅甸(BURMA(MYANMAR)) 
MN-蒙古(MONGOLIA) 
MO-澳门地区(MACAU) 
MT-马耳他(MALTA) 
MU-毛里求斯(MAURITIUS) 
MW-马拉维(MALAWI) 
MX-墨西哥(MEXICO) 
MY-马来西亚(MALAYSIA) 
MZ-莫桑比克(MOZAMBIQUE) 
N
NA-纳米比亚(NAMIBIA) 
NE-尼日尔(NIGER) 
NG-尼日利亚(NIGERIA) 
NI-尼加拉瓜(NICARAGUA) 
NL-荷兰(NETHERLANDS) 
NO-挪威(NORWAY) 
NP-尼泊尔(NEPAL) 
NZ-新西兰(NEW ZEALAND) 
O
OM-阿曼(OMAN) 
P
PA-巴拿马(PANAMA) 
PE-秘鲁(PERU) 
PG-巴布亚新几内亚(PAPUA NEW GUINEA) 
PH-菲律宾(PHILIPPINES) 
PK-巴基斯坦(PAKISTAN) 
PL-波兰(POLAND) 
PT-葡萄牙(PORTUGAL) 
PY-巴拉圭(PARAGUAY) 
Q
QA-卡塔尔(QATAR) 
R
RO-罗马尼亚(ROMANIA) 
RU-俄罗斯(RUSSIAN FEDERATION) 
S
SA-沙特阿拉伯(SAUDI ARABIA) 
SC-塞舌尔(SEYCHELLES) 
SD-苏丹(SUDAN) 
SE-瑞典(SWEDEN) 
SG-新加坡(SINGAPORE) 
SI-斯洛文尼亚(SLOVENIA) 
SK-斯洛伐克(SLOVAKIA) 
SM-圣马力诺(SAN MARINO) 
SN-塞内加尔(SENEGAL) 
SO-索马里(SOMALIA) 
SY-叙利亚(SYRIA) 
SZ-斯威士兰(SWAZILAND) 
T
TD-乍得(CHAD) 
TG-多哥(TOGO) 
TH-泰国(THAILAND) 
TJ-塔吉克斯坦(TAJIKISTAN) 
TM-土库曼(TURKMENISTAN) 
TN-突尼斯(TUNISIA) 
TR-土耳其(TURKEY) 
TW-台湾省(TAIWAN) 
TZ-坦桑尼亚(TANZANIA) 
U
UA-乌克兰(UKRAINE) 
UG-乌干达(UGANDA) 
US-美国(UNITED STATES) 
UY-乌拉圭(URUGUAY) 
UZ-乌兹别克(UZBEKISTAN) 
V
VC-圣文森特岛(SAINT VINCENT) 
VE-委内瑞拉(VENEZUELA) 
VN-越南(VIET NAM) 
Y
YE-也门(YEMEN) 
YU-南斯拉夫联盟(YUGOSLAVIA) 
Z
ZA-南非(SOUTH AFRICA) 
ZM-赞比亚(ZAMBIA) 
ZR-扎伊尔(ZAIRE) 
ZW-津巴布韦(ZIMBABWE)

[pdf-embedder url=”http://supplierlifecycle.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Hits-by-2017.4.24.pdf” title=”Hits by 2017.4.24″]

 

清晰的沟通-做好“表哥表姐”Clear Communication Starts from Avoiding Common Document Pitfalls

有个小笑话故事讲客户要求建一个烟囱,承建商很快就完工了,结果到验收时一看傻眼了,实际建了一口井sad。在我们老家农村,家里地基是自家的,因此建房比较容易,只需请些师傅买些材料慢慢盖就好了,当然要把框架搭起来大师傅是要请的,所谓的大师傅就是按照主人的意思将房子的各个空间分割好,需要几间卧室,几个洗手间,门朝哪边开,开多大,打算建几层,等等。但是通常是没有正规的图纸的,只是用笔在白纸上画个歪歪扭扭的图给主人看看,也会标示一些主要的建筑尺寸。普通的房子是这样的,也见过别墅是这样盖的。结果听说过不少笑话,其中最常见的就是楼梯装反了,主人希望是顺时针螺旋式上升,结果被做成了逆时针螺旋式上升。原以为只有在中国的农村才会发生这样的事情,有个德国的同事讲他们家盖房子时请了不同国家的工人来作业(因为工作性质和工资水平的原因,德国的建筑工人很多是外籍劳工,主要以东欧为主),结果是楼梯也被装反了,不知道是不是德国也不兴画图的。自己家里装修,请了当地排名前三的装修公司负责,一周之后收到约30页A2大小的图纸,要求主人签字后合同才正式开始,看着很规范就签上自己的大名,开始动工作业,等结束时再回去看那些图纸,发现没有设计人员,评审人员和批准人员的署名,没有横平竖直的公差。幸好施工质量还行,想想这也是很多有过装修经验的朋友经常在验收时不满的原因,因为这些细节通常在前期被忽略了,然而被归纳成-装修师傅很重要。实则是前期沟通很重要,装修师傅也很重要。在制造厂,也不是完全靠工人来决定产品品质的嘛,设计也相当重要。

There is a joke about a story that a customer asks the contractor to build a chimney. Indeed, the contractor finished the work in no time, yet when the customer checked the work, he was astonished to find that the contractor actually built a well. In Chinese rural areas, since the foundation belongs to the residents, it is relatively easy to build a house as it only requires workers to purchase some materials and build the house little by little. Of course, the master is necessary for establishing the framework. The so-called master will divide the house into different spaces based on the demand of the owner, which includes the quantity of bedrooms and washrooms, the direction and size of the door, the quantity of floors, etc. But more often than not, there is no formal drawings. Instead, only a sketch drawing by pencils on a piece of white paper will be presented to owners, with some main construction dimensions marked. Ordinary houses are built in this way, and so are some villas. Therefore, some stupid mistakes will be made inevitably. The most common one among them may be the stairs in wrong direction: the owner hopes stairs that will spiral clockwise, yet the contractor made it counter-clockwise. I thought it will only take place in villages in China. Nevertheless, one of my German colleges told me that when his family built a house, they invited workers from different countries to take the job. (Due to the nature of work and wage level, a large majority of workers are from abroad, mainly eastern European) However, the stairs was built in the wrong direction as well. Maybe in German, workers are not used to make building drawings either. As someone decided to decorate his house by himself, he asked a decoration company which ranked top three locally to undertake this job. One week later, the owner received 30 pages of A2 drawings on which he was required to sign to authorize the official start of the agreement. Since these papers seem to be formal, the owner signed, and the worker started constructing the house. When construction came to the end, the owner looked back to these drawings, only to find that these drawings lacked the signature of designers, reviewers and approvers, as well as the tolerances for lines and squares. Fortunately, the quality of construction is not so bad. To think it over, this may be the supposed reason why dozens of people with decoration experience are not satisfied when checking the work, as these details are always ignored at the early stage. Despite that it is always concluded as selecting capable decoration workers is important, actually both the communication at the early stage and the experience of decoration workers are equally important. Same like in the manufacturing plants, it is not the workers that decide the quality of products totally. Designers, and engineers, however, are of the same significance.

与产品设计相似,如何清晰的表达在沟通中显得尤为重要。质量人员常用的工具是程序,文件,表格,公式,业务人员常用的是报价单,订单。见过报价单不写单位的,也亲身经历过购买单位写的不够清楚造成扯皮的。一付门合页,报价单位写1 set (一套),客户确认,下订单,走货,结果收到货就发现不对了,我要的是每包一对(1 pair),怎么变成了每包只有一只合页,数量整整少了一半。而且因为客户初期还觉得工厂的价格既然控制的这么有竞争力,那就多买一点吧。仅仅一个单词的差异,造成了一次重大投诉和纠纷。

Similar to product design, how to express clearly appears to be particularly important in communication. The common tools used by the quality personnel are procedures, documents, tables and formulas, while the ones that used by commercial personnel are quotations and orders. I have seen quotations without units, and have also experienced the wrangles caused by unclear purchase units. In one case, the unit on the quotation of one pair of door hinges was a set. After the customer confirmed it and made the order, it was shipped to customers. Unexpectedly, the customer found something wrong as soon as he received the product. He needed one pair per package, yet it turned out to have only one hinge placed in every pack—thus, it was only the half of the original order in terms of the quantity. Moreover, as the customer regarded the controlled price of the factory as so competitive, he bought more than ever. To sum up, only a difference in a word may give rise to a major complaint and dispute.

很多时候大家工作上的沟通除了邮件,电话之外是用文件,表格等形式来完成的,但是工作中经常遇到很多文件,表格除了内容之外有以下的注意事项:

Most of the time, people use files and forms, besides mails or phones, to communicate with each other at work. But plenty of files and forms have the following point for attention other than the content:

  1. 文件document
  • 没有页眉页脚no header and footer

页眉如同政府的红头文件,相当于一个帅哥的浓眉大眼,美女的眉清目秀。对于公司而言如果有的话方便让人一目了然这些什么公司,什么性质的文件,这也是专业的公司展示公司形象和品牌的地方,放个响亮的公司商标(LOGO)和使命愿景再好不过了。所有的汽车,商标一定是车前车后都有的,汽车的部件也是能被印有商标的也一概不会落下。经常有公司问我,“你说我们这个质量方针政策要宣导,我们怎么做”,除了将那个质量政策展示在宣传栏之外,借各类文件的页眉页脚来宣传也是不错的选项。

The header is like the official document of the government, the big eyes and bushy eyebrows of a handsome man,, as well as the bright eyes and  graceful eyebrows of a beauty,  As for the company, if they have headers, it will be convenient for people to understand the company and the documents clearly at first glance. Also, since the headers help present the image and brand of the company, it will be great to place a conspicuous logo and missions and visions as well. All the cars have at least two logos placed at the front and the end, and if possible the components usually are branded with logos as well. Plenty of companies ask me frequently that, “how should we advocate and reinforce the quality policies?” In addition to displaying the policies outside the bulletin board, resorting to the headers and footers of various documents as a means of promotion is also a good choice.

页脚通常放文件的编制日期,或者动态的打印日期(自动变更为打印当日的日期),文件的版本号,页码

The footer always comprises the compile date, or dynamic print date (it will automatically change into the date on which the document is printed), version number, and the page number of the file.

  • 没有编制人,评审人,和批准人以及时间 no editor, reviewer and approver, as well as date

阅读者不知道文件是否被批准,是否有效,是谁最终批准的。没有时间,阅读者无法确认文件是否继续有效。

Readers fail to know whether the document has been approved or not, valid or not, and who finally approved it. Since no information on time is presented, the readers are not able to identify whether the document remains to be valid.

  • 没有联系方式 no contact information

经常在网上看到一些非常好的文章,经过多次转发,最后“轶者不详”,有什么需要请教的也找不到作者了,甚是可惜。We always notice some good articles on the website which have been forwarded for many times. Unfortunately, they are always anonymous. It is such a pity that we are not able to find the writers even if we have something to consult.

  • 版权意识淡却 no copy right reservation

作者写下长篇大论,可惜并没有预估到经由什么渠道什么方式会演变成什么形式的结果,可能是对作者有利的,也有可能会给作者带来困扰,还是建议在文件内注明清楚申明,至少可以将版权注明清楚 – 版权所有,禁止擅用。当然也强烈建议文件尽量转换为PDF格式后再用于交流,个人不建议文件动不动就设密码,其一可能自己也会忘记,其二破解文件密码早已不是什么难事了。

The writer has finished such a long article, yet he has not predicted that which form it will evolve into, via which channel, and in which way. Maybe it will be beneficial to writer, or in contrast, be troublesome. Therefore, it is advisable that the declaration be indicated clearly inside the file—at least, the copyright should be indicated clearly: All rights reserved. Of course, it is highly recommended that the document be converted into PDF and then be used for communication. Personally, I do not suggest setting up a password on the file. For one thing, the writer himself may forget it. For the other, cracking password is not a difficult task any more.

  1. EXCEL表格

俗话说会用WORD的通常比不会用WORD的挣的多,会用EXCEL的通常比会用WORD的挣的多,会用PPT的比会用EXCEL的挣的多,会看PPT的比会做PPT的挣的多。对于表格的合理利用比对文件又有些不一样的主意事项。常见的问题是没有充分利用页眉页脚,或者文件本身就是用现成的其他文件改编的而忘了检查原来的文件是否有页眉页脚,导致文件被打印出来的时候才被人发现。又或者文件的打印区域没有提前设置好,造成阅读者打印时排版是乱的,显得作者非常不专业。其余的常见问题包括:

As the saying goes, people who master WORD usually earn more than those who have not; people who master EXCEL usually earn more than those who master WORD; people who master PPT earn more than those who master EXCEL; those who read PPT earn more than those who master PPT. Reasonable utilization of EXCEL requires different issues for attention compared with those of WORD documents. The most commonly seen problem is insufficient use of headers and footers. Moreover, sometimes the EXCEL is actually the adaption of another document so that people forgot to check the headers and footers of the original document. Thus, people do not find the problems until the document is printed. Also, the print area is not set up well in advance occasionally, which results in the disordered layout when readers print the document, and renders the writer unprofessional.Some other common issues like below:

  • 没有编制人和审批人 no editor and approver

我一直很纳闷中国人需要低调到不用署名吗?还是说自己的名字用的太多了会觉得写出了难看?

I am always wondering that whether it is necessary for Chinese to be so modest as to not put their signatures on the file, or maybe the excessive use of their own names will make the name unattractive.

  • 金额没有单位 no currency for money

Excel 通常被用于显示财务数据,但是在被一些非财务人员使用的时候时常会被忽略金额的单位,到底是美金,还是欧元,还是人民币,还是港币?这个世界已经非常扁平了,金额单位非常重要。EXCEL is often applied to display the financial data, but some non-financial staffs will always ignore the units of the amount while using. Whether it is USD, EUR, CNY or HKD? As the world appears to be really flat, the unit of amount is of great significance.

  • 数据没有年份或日期 no year or date for data

所有引用的数据需要有日期,至少摆放个年份吧,经常看到销售额,但是没有年份,实在弄不清是去年的数据还是今年截至目前,还是某个月的,更不用说是采购额,还是发票金额,还是交货金额。

All the data referred should have date, at least a particular year. The sales volume can often be seen, but the year seems to be ignored. As a result, it will really be confusing whether the data belongs to last year, the present, or a specific month, let alone the number is for purchase value, invoice value or delivery value.

  • 文件没有版本或变更史 no version or change log

如果没有最后的修订日期或者版本,神仙都无法对比到底哪个是最新的,究竟两个版本间改了些什么东西。

If the last revision date or version is not displayed, even the god cannot identify which one is the latest one, and what has been changed between the two versions.

  1. Chart图表

会用EXCEL的通常少不了用图表,因为它直观,一目了然。但是使用它的人常常也会忽略一些细节,而这就是会做EXCEL图表和会做好EXCEL图表的区别,要学好图表,多看看优秀的商业杂志。假设一个图表要给10个人看,好的图表每个人花1分钟就看懂了,总共花了10分钟,而作者花了10分钟,累加是20分钟,而一个坏的图表花了1分钟就做好了,同样的10个人每个人花了5分钟来弄清这个图表的意思,共计花了51分钟,你说哪个图表更有价值。

People who have a good command of EXCEL will inevitably use the charts often as it’s visual and explicit. However, people who use it always ignore some details, which seem to be the difference between “can use EXCEL” and “can use EXCEL well”. To learn EXCEL well, one should read brilliant business magazines often. Suppose that a chart will be shown to 10 people. For a good chart, it only took one minute per person to understand, so totally 10 minutes were spent for reading. Besides, the writers spent 10 minutes on the edit, so in grand total, 20 minutes were spent on this chart. In contrast, a bad chart was done within one minute, but the same 10 people spent 5 minutes understanding the chart, so totally 51 minutes were spent. Which chart is more valuable? Needless to say, the answer seems to be quite obvious.

  • 没有图表抬头 no tittle

没有抬头的图表等于没有眼睛的一张脸,你都看不出它是谁。而用好抬头词的图表就像一对炯炯有神的双眼,要是再加一个附标题,那就是给双眼再配一副金边眼镜,让它看起来更文质彬彬。

A chart without titles is like a face without eyes, as you cannot even recognize who it is. On the contrary, the chart with attractive titles is as much as a pair of bright eyes. If a subtitle is added, it is none other than matching the eyes with a pair of gold-rimmed glasses to make it much gentle.

  • X-Y轴没有单位 no unit on X/Y axis

早些年我是挨过不少骂的,尽管我十分小心,仍然会在不经意间犯这样的低级错误,领导要在会上质问我那个坐标轴上没有标单位的数是代表金额还是数量.做工程的很清楚,螺丝是要分公制和英制的,没有单位,结果可想而知。

I had been criticized quite often in earlier years over these errors. Despite I am cautious, I still make some stupid mistakes of this kind carelessly so that the leader will ask me the number on the axis without units represents the amount of money or quantity. People engaging in engineering are quite clear that even the screws can be categorized into metric ones and imperial ones. Without the units, one can imagine the outcome

  • 主副轴没有区分 no marking of primary and secondary axis

进阶一点的人会将Y轴设在图表的左右两边,但是千万小心如果主副轴两边的单位不一样,就一定要清楚标示到底哪边是什么单位,什么数据,而不要左右不清。

Advanced professionals will place the Y axis on both the left and right side of the chart. But one should be much careful that if the units on the main and auxiliary axis are different, he should mark the units and data clearly on both sides instead of confusing them.

  • 格式和线条没有调整 no re-formatting after auto-creation

如果希望别人读懂你的图表,上面的就够了,但是如果希望别人喜欢读你的图表,就一定要调整自动生成的图纸,尽管EXCEL已经很人性化,2010版自动生成的图表不再是那么难看了。这就是能吃,好吃,爱吃的区别。

If you hope that others can understand your chart, the points above are enough. But if you hope others can love reading your chart, you have to adjust the chart created by default setting of EXCEL. Although EXCEL is humanized enough, the automatically-formed chart in 2010 versions is not awkward any more, but this is the difference between eatable, delicious and favorite.

在企业工作不同于在政府工作,很多时候表达要尽量准确,才不会造成误解,而不像国家国际政策,很多时候是点到为止,这也是经常在重大政治和经济政策发布之后有“解读”之说法。解读错了,不是编写者的问题,但是如果在企业里要向其他人进行表达,就需要慎重了。

Working for the enterprise is different from working under the government. The expression in business should be as accurate as possible most of the time so that it will not generate confusion, which is distinct from the international policies of a country that usually play words. This is also the reason why many people will try to “interpret” messages after publish of significant political and economic policies. Even if the interpretation is wrong, it is not the author that to be blamed. However, if he is to express to others in an enterprise, then he should quite careful.

ACKNOWLEDGE GIVEN TO TRANSLATOR MS. ZIZHU WANG FROM GUANGDONG UNIVERSITY OF FOREIGN STUDIES

体弱勤运动,人穷多读书 More Sporting, More Reading

体检发现有轻微脂肪肝,问医生对策,开方子,查使用说明书,显示主要功能是疏肝解郁,医生也强调不能完全依赖药物,健康饮食,定时定量也不可小觑。再查百度,发现也要加强运动,运动总比花钱受罪强,再继续查,专业的知识显示每日至少需要运动约6,000步,平均3KM,约30分钟。人每天是要吃饭的,能花30分钟进食,再花30分钟运动帮助消化不必要的“食物非营养成分”,想想也是很有必要的。如同机器要运转,就得要保养上润滑油,反之亦然,不能光上润滑油,不让机器动起来,否则就会润滑油堆积,形成脏污,如同“脂肪肝”。

I was informed of my mild fatty liver during the medical check-up. The doctor gave me a prescription, which is used to soothe the liver and relieve depression according to the instructions. He also stressed the importance of keeping a regular healthy diet and avoiding full rely on medical treatment. Later by searching on the Internet, I learnt that more exercise is necessary. After all, exercise is much better than spending money on bitter pills. Searching further, the expertise suggests at least a 6, 000-step walk every day, about 3KM for 30 minutes. People have meals every day; it is ideal that we spend 30 minutes on meal and another 30 minutes on exercise to digest unnecessary non-nutrients. A machine is in need of regular lubricating oil addition to function well. But if a machine which is regularly supplied with lubricating oil dose not work at all, the oil will accumulate in it and result in filth, just like a fatty liver.

四肢如此,大脑也类似。我们是需要不断充电,放电来调节大脑功能,让其充分激活的。充电的过程就是学习新知识的过程,放电就是要把所学习,理解的知识经过消化,反思,提炼,归纳,总结,甚至通过分享给他人来再次获取新的知识,正所谓三人行,必有我师焉。否则大脑就会固化,僵化,停留在一个阶段或者一个水平,看世界总是一个角度。

The logic adapts to not only our body, but also our brain. The brain needs continual charging and discharging so as to coordinate its functioning and keep fully active. Charging is the process of learning new things, and discharging is the process of digesting, reflecting on, extracting, concluding and summarizing the knowledge leant, or obtaining new knowledge by sharing what we have learnt with others. As the saying goes, when I walk along with two others, they may serve me as my teachers. Otherwise our thoughts will be rigidified, stagnating at a constant stage and viewing things from a single perspective.

没有互联网之前,有机会看报的是机关的工作人员,如今的公务员,那时是可以称为知识分子的,因为他们获取的信息要比其他人多,要快。互联网拉平了世界,大家同时有机会获取同样多的信息,这时信息的质量就非常重要了,因为大家可用的时间是相同的。如果同样的时间,有的人直接获取了所有信息里有用信息的80%和他们只能获取有用信息的20%,差别就可想而知了。

Before the appearance of the Internet, it was employees sitting in an office that had the chance to read newspapers. Today’s civil servants could be classified as intellectuals at that time, for they had more and faster access to information than others. The Internet has made the world a flat one where everyone has equal access to equal information. This is also an age when information quality begins to matter, since everyone has the same amount of time to utilize. In a given period of time, some people draw 80% of the useful information from all the information available while others 20% only. A difference between the two will be self-evident.

教育给大家起到了很好的作用。教育让人们把所有信息里相互关联的信息整理到一块,形成板块话的知识,所谓专业;让这些相互关联的知识集中到少数人头脑里,所谓教授。这是与互联网上的论坛不同的地方,在那,信息或许非常多,每天有不同的人在问同样的问题,点击“SEARCH”,马上能给你答案,但是很可能你收到的答复是很多条信息,需要你进一步仔细鉴别,继而又会激发你进一步问下一个问题的欲望。因为那些信息是片状式的,而不是板块式的。

Education plays a very important role for us. It facilitates the aggregation of correlative information selected from all available one to form knowledge modules, which are called programs. It assists the integration of such correlative knowledge into several persons’ mind, which are called professors. This is where education is different from the BBS on the Internet. On a BBS, information is abundant and every day there are numerous people asking the same questions. You will get an answer to your question by clicking “SEARCH”. But it is possible that you get more than one piece of information, which requires your further distinction and thus stimulates your desire to ask another question, for the information is in fragment rather than in module.

许多的信息是来自于实践的,而不是凭空捏造,因而长期从事某方面工作的专业人士得以将实践的体会,心得归纳汇总,形成书籍。这些书籍的内容,再加上作者从结尾的引用页中的扩展知识中所吸取的精华,很大程度上能将作者想描述的领域有个全方位的说明。

Most information comes from practices rather than sheer fabrication. Therefore experts engaged long in a certain domain are able to write down their experiences and thoughts in books. The content of the books, plus the citations extracted from other books, can, to a large extent, give a comprehensive description of the domain in which the author is engaged.

我个人是鼓励大家多读书,少看微文章的。书籍如同正餐,微文章如同快餐。从博客,到微博,从短信到微信,微信到表情符号.白岩松说这个时代太追求速度了,以致忘了质量。乘书本价格的涨幅还低于物价的涨幅时,多读些书吧。

Personally speaking, I am in favor of reading more books but less micro articles. A book is like a dinner while a micro article is like a fast food which evolves from blog to micro blog and from message to micro message, and now it’s trending to emoji, Bai Yansong, a well-known Chinese TV presenter, once noted that this was an era so indulged in speed that it let go of quality.  So read books more while the increase in book price is still below the inflation of overall prices.

在供应商管理的板块,大家如果有机会对比国内外的文章或者书籍,会发现中文的书籍或许更多实战性的内容,而外文的书籍会描述的更加全面。外文的书价格通常价格比较昂贵(我不知道为什么当年我MBA的一些英文原版教材价格还算便宜),以最近出的The Certified Supplier Quality Professional Handbook (认证供应商质量专员手册)为例,价格如下:

In the module of supplier management, a comparison between Chinese and foreign articles and books will come to a finding that whereas Chinese books contain more practical content, foreign books provide more comprehensive description of theoretical issues. Foreign books are usually more expensive (I have no idea why some of my MBA English original textbooks were priced relatively low.) Take a recently published book, The Certified Supplier Quality Professional Handbook, as an example. Following is how it is priced.

ASQ官网非会员价135美金,亚马逊美国135美金,亚马逊中国,京东,当当,都没有销售,亚马逊印度居然只售1,195卢比(约美金18.5),其他地区我没有查。如果有机会,还是托人从印度买了带过来,当然我也愿意帮这个忙。

It is sold at a price of 135 dollars on ASQ official website and US Amazon, but not available on China Amazon, JD or Dangdang. However, the price on India Amazon should be as low as 1,195 rupees (about 18.5 dollars). I did not check the price in other areas. If you have chances to have someone to buy in India and courier to you it would be the best and I am also pleased to help you in such case.

   

专业的书籍会让大家的知识结构更加有条理,也让工作变得相对轻松一些。而不是像农民种地,种了几辈子,也不见出产增加了多少,但是袁隆平配合科学的方法,就让农民兄弟们涨了见识。

By reading professional books, we will have a better-organized knowledge structure and our work will be less intensive. Take farmers working in the land as an example. Although they have done farming work from generation to generation, the outcome does not increase significantly. But Yuan Longping, Father of Hybrid Rice in China, has broadened their horizon through scientific methods.

我不是专业搞理论的,但是会尽力将所了解的供应商管理专业知识和书籍推荐给大家,如果大家有补充的也请不吝赐教。

Although I am not specialized in theory study, I will do my utmost to present to you the expertise in and the books on supplier management that I have learnt. Any Complement from you will be warmly welcome.

SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGE GIVEN TO MS.Wang Qian (Claire) FOR HER CONTRIBUTIONS OVER THE TRANSLATION.

Where Does Supplier Life Cycle Management Starts供应商寿命周期管理从何开始?

西方管理界有一句话叫No Measurement, No Management (没有测量,就没有管理),意思是说所有的管理都是从测量开始的,包含对一项任务,一个项目,一组员工,等等,同样适用于对供应商的管理。进一步延伸一下,供应商的管理又从何开始呢?

There is a saying in western management that, “No Measurement, No Management”, which suggests that all management begins from measurement, ranging from a task, a project, a team of staffs, etc. Similarly, it can also be applied to management of suppliers.  To extend further, where should the supplier management start

供应商的管理从定要求和规则开始,这叫立则兴,不立则废。要求和规则从业务的基础 – 采购环节开始,采购的战略和定位顺从公司和组织的业务需要和定位开始。

The supplier management begins from setting up requirements and standards, which is known as “Establishing rules indicates prosperity; whereas not doing that indicates decline. Requirements and standards starts from the basic part of business—procurement, while the strategies and positioning of procurement compromise to business needs and positioning of the company or organizations.”

家里有小朋友的父母有经验,要拒绝小朋友的需求就要先立规矩,让他(她)按规矩行事,比如看电视,必须要先做完作业。老师有经验要激励学生取得好分数不仅要考试,还要告诉他们录取分数线及他们模拟考试成绩的排名(当然仅仅有这些还不够)。

Parents of small children may be quite experienced as they know that if they want to refuse requests from their children, they must establish rules first and ask him(her) to act accordingly. For instance, only when children finish their homework first can they watch TV. Likewise, teachers are also experienced in encouraging students to get high marks. They not only ask students to take tests, but also tell them admission scores as well as the ranks, even though these are apparently not all tips.

对供应商的管理同样需要将规矩和规则定好,并通过各种方式宣导给供应商以及让他们认可接受。

Similarly, supplier management also requires rules and regulations which will be cascaded to suppliers by all means in order to make them accept these terms.

要将这些变为现实,需要至少完成以下事项:

To make these into reality, we should at least accomplish following items:

1.健全采购方的内部流程Establish Clear Internal Procedures at Purchasing Organizations

要将采购方组织的要求清晰且明确下来,需要供应商满足ISO9001作为最低要求的那就要满足。产品规格及质量要求没有明确的定义,如何能期望供应商做出合乎自己想法的优良产品?需要有规范的管理表格来展示或传递需求的就需要拟定好落实下来,套用一句话叫一屋不扫何以扫供应商。

To make the request of procurement organizations clear and definite, suppliers are bound to meet the ISO9001 as the minimum expectation if they are requested. Since there is no specific definition on product standard and quality requirements, how can we expect suppliers to produce excellent product conforming to our personal mind? Therefore, if there is a need for some normative management table to present or communicate requirements, then it should be formulated and implemented. To quote a proverb, “if own house is not cleaned up, how can we clean for suppliers?”

2.强化采购方内部的沟通Reinforce Communication in Purchasing Organizations

需要建立独立的同供应商的沟通窗口的就要明确下来并告诉供应商,不能让供应商猜测谁应该是正确的联系窗口,也不能让供应商随便找采购方一个关系不错的“朋友”或者“领导”来解释某一方面的要求,这只会害人又害己。常见的现象是供应商找采购员或者技术代表由他们来做解释或转给采购方其他人员,但是经常会出现“传话筒”现象-要求被弱化甚至变形了,因为供应商那端提出疑问的最早可能也不是销售或者技术人员,只不过他们在供应商那端也是代表公司在传话而已。

If it is necessary to set up independent communication window with suppliers, it should be made clear and told to suppliers. Not only cannot we let suppliers to suppose which one is the right contact window, but we also cannot make suppliers to find a well-related “in-side friend or leader” with good relationship at random, as it will do harm to other people as well as suppliers themselves. The common phenomenon is that suppliers resort to buyers or technical representatives to help explain, or hand it over to other staffs of procurement organization, yet a phenomenon of “passing on microphones” will appear more often than not, which implies that the requirements and/or questions are weakened or even deformed. To explain, the one who put forward a question from suppliers’ aspect at first may not be salesman or technician— they merely pass on the message on behalf on the company from suppliers.

采购端的岗位职责及授权也需要有很明确的说明和定义,如同一个采购专业人士曾经在分享他的经历当中提到在一个采购合同里面有涉及如果有XXX事项,需要乙方(供应商)与甲方(采购方)联系,但是并没有说与甲方的某部门的什么性质的代表联系,结果就会出现甚至乙方会与甲方的前台沟通也并不违背采购合同的情形。曾经某公司技术部请了个实习生,随着时间的推移,实习生的工作内容也越来越多,结果就出现了实习生口头批准了供应商的一个产品技术变更,造成后面市场出现投诉(这个时候已经是1年之后了),结果实习生已经结束实习离开公司了,只有剩下的人来承担这个后果了。可见在公司内部有清晰的沟通有多重要。

The responsibility and authorization of procurement needs explicit illustration and definition as well, which resonates with the experiences of a procurement professional. He mentioned that in a procurement agreement, if it involves some issues, the Party B (supplier) are supposed to contact Party A (purchaser). Nevertheless, since it does not mention which type of representatives from which department of Party A should be contacted, the Party B can also communicate with the reception of the Party A without breaking the procurement contract. Once a technical department of one company employed an intern who got more and more works as time goes by. Thus, he later approved a technical change in product verbally, giving rise to complaint in the market afterwards (About one year later). However, the interns had finished his internship and left the company, only those who were still on-board can take the responsibility. In a word, clear communication within the company is of vital importance.

3.多渠道沟通规则和需求Communicate Rules and Requirements to Suppliers Through Multiple Channels.

供应商管理不是一朝一夕的事情,向供应商传输采购方的要求也并能一蹴而就,或者一纸令下,这只能徒劳无益,反而需要多渠道多沟通,这一点上孩子教育有一定的借鉴意义,并不是送去一个高级的幼稚园就可以改变孩子的行为举止,而大部分是依赖于父母的反复强化教育和影响。

Supplier management is by no means an issue that can be achieved overnight. Similarly, passing requirements from purchasers to suppliers cannot be accomplished at once or commanded immediately since it is of no use pumping a dry well. Conversely, it requires multiple channels for more communication. In this aspect, education on children has something to refer: it is the repeated enhanced education and influence of parents rather than a superior kindergarten that will change the behavior of children.

从采购方的管理层,需要树立在公司内部建立流程的理念,在同供应商的管理层进行战略上的沟通时需要强化这些要求的宣导,比如供应商大会,定期或不定期的拜访或评审会议。采购方的中层和基层执行人员在推行或执行这些要求时尽量含括供应商端的对应的执行人员及相关应该被告知的人员,避免经由供应商的某个HUB 再去传递述求。

In terms of the purchaser management layer, it needs to build concepts of process that should be established inside the company. When communicating with management level of suppliers on strategies, it is necessary to reinforce the promotion of these requirements such as supplier conferences, regular or irregular visit or review meetings. When the middle or operational level staffs implement or execute these requirements, they should include counterpart operational staffs of suppliers and relevant ones that should be told as far as possible so as to avoid give request via certain HUB of suppliers.

同时这些中层和基层的执行代表应该反向向采购方的管理层进行总结汇报,看看哪些要求执行起来有难度,供应商和自己有何种建议可以来优化。如此一来,形成一个PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act)的良性循环来推动要求的落实。

Meanwhile, those executive representatives of middle and basic level ought to make a summary and report to the management level of purchasing organization in reverse so that they can find out which requirements may be difficult to carry out, and which suggestion can be inspired by suppliers and staffs to optimize the situation. Thus, a practical PDCA(Plan-Do-Check-Act) circle will be formed to propel implementation of requirements.

在此基础之上,再来采取测量,对于执行有偏差的环节进行修正,推动供应商的管理更上一层楼。

If we start to measure, and then amend the process with deviation in execution on this basis, the result of pushing forward management of suppliers will become better and better.

 

SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGE GIVEN TO MS.ZIZHU WANG (AKIKO) FOR TRANSLATION.

Why Quality Assurance Agreement is Important 为什么质量保证协议很重要?

Have you struggled to ask for a free replacement or premium delivery at supplier's cost after receiving complaints from you customers? How long did you take to solve it eventually and how many times did you encounter the same situation per year? Would you like to buy any more from the same supplier or even the same region any more? Do you use Quality Assurance Agreement to protect yourselves?

One day I went to a street shop to buy a faucet, and after checking the style and price I simply asked " how about the quality", "You are assured, the quality is very good", said the shop owner, "How good", I further checked as in my past experience this is not a good and reliable answer. "For this brand of faucet, I have given to my aunt to use and I did not receive any negative feedback". "Okay, I understand now, and do you have any warranty to it, such as two years", in my experience the faucets from such street shops usually only can last for only near 1 year before various of failures. Then the owner was a little upset and said "Sorry, but I think I can only give you maximum 1 year warranty… The trader only give me 1 year warranty…". Finally I select the one and ask for a receipt with additional note of warranty annually wrote on side.

This is my real personal experience and I believe you face it from time to time in your daily life, and how do you handle it?

Back to my questions in the top section, if you work in a company as a professional to make the purchasing decisions and / or handle the complaints, how do you handle it or minimize the efforts after happen or even prevent it at the beginning?

One good way to protect yourselves is signing off a Quality Assurance Agreement with your suppliers where in some other cases was called Quality Control Agreement.

An agreement does not mean everything especially in current business situation of China but it surely at least delivers your general and some core requirements, as well as bottom lines of cooperation to your partners.

You do not need a lawyer to fully check the agreement but some basic rules should be followed and in latter blog we will show you the experience and examples. At least Quality Warranty should be mentioned in below subjects:

  • Quality Standards – Is there any international / national standards applicable for the products? If there is a standard, does the product fully comply with it or just some clause? Which level does the product follow if there are multiple grades in standard and this usually is quite common.
  • Product Quality Warranty – How reliable of the products to work normally for maximum how long time? In some cases like machines, this can also limit to some key parts.
  • How long after storing in house can the product still work properly? Which is also called Shelf Life Warranty.
  • If fails, how to deal with the supplier? Which also means obligation or liability in agreement.

If you put these points strongly on the agreement or Purchasing Orders, properly you will get some defensive feedback from your counterpart if they  really care about the commitment and business, and no matter they are from anywhere of the globe.

You do not need to resort to it every time but I am quite sure you can have a better night after release the order.